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Cherry treatment and prevention - the path to tree health

Cherry treatment and prevention - the path to tree health


To keep the cherry orchard looking healthy and well-groomed, blooming in the spring and bringing a generous harvest in autumn, trees are treated for diseases and pests. There are many methods and means used for the prevention of diseases and the spread of harmful insects. Competently processing trees and at the same time not harming them is not an easy task, but even a novice gardener is quite capable of doing it.

The main fungal diseases of cherry

Over the past few years, cherry yields in Russia have fallen sharply. One of the main reasons for this is the massive spread of coccomycosis and moniliosis (monilial burn) in the main regions of its cultivation.

Video: the most dangerous cherry diseases

In addition, cherries can be affected by fungal diseases such as:

  • clotterosporium disease (perforated spot),
  • cytosporosis,
  • anthracnose,
  • scab
  • tuberculariosis.

But with good tree care and competent agricultural technology, these diseases can be avoided.

Photo gallery: cherry fungal diseases and their signs

Breeding fungus-resistant cherry varieties is one of the most effective ways to solve the problem. Although modern varieties have now been obtained that have a fairly high resistance to infection by fungal infections, it is still necessary to take measures to prevent and treat these diseases. Otherwise, within 2-3 years, you can be left not only without a crop, but also without trees.

Prevention and treatment of cherry coccomycosis

The development of this fungal infection is facilitated by:

  • warm (20-25ºC) and rainy weather in summer,
  • thickening of the crown of the tree,
  • weakening of cherries due to freezing of shoots in winter or damage by pests.

Signs of cherry coccomycosis damage:

  • spots of red-brown color are formed on the surface of the leaves;
  • on the reverse side, the sheet is covered with a pink bloom;
  • the leaves turn yellow, dry up and fall off.

The disease strongly affects the resistance of trees to other unfavorable factors and leads to a decrease in winter hardiness and productivity, slows down the growth and development of shoots and flower buds.

With coccomycosis, the fungus causes yellowing and drying of leaves, rotting of fruits

Coccomycosis prevention measures:

  1. Early (before bud break) spraying with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture or a solution of ferrous sulfate (170 g per 5 l of water).
  2. At the beginning of flowering, treatment with the fungicide Skor (according to the instructions) on the buds and leaves.
  3. Immediately after flowering, if necessary, spraying with a solution of copper oxychloride (HOM).
  4. Whitewashing the trunk and skeletal branches with garden whitewashing or a mixture of copper sulfate and lime.
  5. Timely pruning of trees, removal of diseased and dry shoots.
  6. In the spring, after the snow melts, thorough cleaning under the trees and the subsequent burning of fallen leaves and mummified fruits.

Video: cherry coccomycosis

If preventive measures turned out to be insufficient or belated and it was still not possible to avoid the disease, cherries are treated with systemic fungicides:

  • Horus,
  • Speed,
  • Topaz.

Plants are processed strictly in accordance with the instructions for the preparations. It is necessary to spray not only the affected tree, but also those growing nearby, because fungal infection is spread very quickly by insects and wind. Processing is carried out throughout the summer with a monthly interval between spraying, with the exception of 3 weeks before and after the harvest ripens.

Regulations for the treatment of cherries for coccomycosis:

  1. Before the buds swell - spraying with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
  2. Before flowering - spraying with Horus fungicide (3 g of the product per 10 l of water), consumption: 2–4 l of solution per tree.
  3. After flowering (after 2 weeks) - spraying with Horus fungicide (3 g of preparation per 10 l of water), consumption: 2–4 l of solution per tree.
  4. After harvesting - spraying with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture, a solution of copper oxychloride (HOM, OxyHOM).
  5. In autumn, before the beginning of leaf fall - if necessary, spraying with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture.

Experienced gardeners note that the Horus systemic fungicide is most effective in treating cherries from coccomycosis.

To save cherry orchards from these dangerous diseases, we recommend two-time treatment of the plantings with Horus. The first spraying is carried out before flowering, the second - two weeks after its completion. To prepare a working solution for 10 liters of water, take 3 g of the drug. Consumption per tree - 2-4 liters of solution (depending on the size of the tree). It has been noticed that Horus is most effective at low positive temperatures (from + 3º to + 18ºC). The processing should not be carried out at an air temperature above + 22 ° C. The period of protective action is 7-10 days. The drug is quickly absorbed by the leaves and already in 2 hours after treatment it is not washed off by rain

Prevention and treatment of cherry moniliosis

In second place after coccomycosis in terms of frequency and serious consequences is the disease of cherry trees with moniliosis (monilial burn). This infection is also caused by a fungus. Favorable conditions for the development of the fungus are warm weather (15-20ºC) and light rains in spring, when the growing season and cherry blossoms begin.

With moniliosis, the leaves on the tree turn black and dry up, and the fruits rot and crumble

The disease manifests itself as follows:

  • leaves and branches turn black and look as if they have been on fire;
  • over time, these areas are covered with light convex growths and gradually dry out;
  • grayish-black growths are formed on the fruits;
  • the affected leaves remain hanging on the branches, and the diseased fruits rot and crumble.

For the treatment of moniliosis, before flowering and immediately after it, cherries are sprayed with fungicides:

  • Nitrafen,
  • Kuprozan,
  • copper-containing preparation OxyHOM,
  • 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or copper sulfate (100 g sulfate per 10 liters of water).

After harvesting, copper oxychloride (HOM) and Phthalan fungicide are used to treat trees. Trees should be treated with the indicated means strictly in accordance with the instructions. When spraying, use respiratory protective equipment and gloves. On trees with moniliosis, the bark and branches affected by the fungus must be removed and burned. It is necessary to cut down the affected branches with the capture of a healthy area.

Video: cherry moniliosis - signs, prevention, treatment

To prevent moniliosis, before and after flowering, trees are treated with a 2% solution of Bordeaux liquid or a solution of copper sulfate of the same concentration. For spraying, you can also use ready-made products (Nitrafen, Kuprozan, OxyHOM).

If necessary, after harvesting the fruits, you can spray the trees with copper oxychloride.

Whitewash

In early spring (or at the very end of winter), you need to whitewash the trunks and large skeletal branches of cherry trees. This will protect them from sunburn, frostbites, cracks, damage by rodents and other pests. Such work should be carried out only at a positive air temperature. For whitewashing, a mixture of slaked lime with clay or mullein is used (2 kg of lime and 1 kg of clay or mullein per 10 liters of water).

The addition of copper or iron sulfate to the whitewash will provide trees with additional protection against fungal diseases.

Video: preventive whitewashing of cherry trees

Cherry pests and control

In the spring, with the first warming, harmful insects become active, hibernating in the soil of the trunk circle and fallen leaves. They crawl up the tree trunks to the swelling buds. Trapping belts are used to impede the movement of pests. To make such a belt, you need to fold burlap or paper 15–20 cm wide in several layers. The upper edge should be tightly tied to the stem with twine. At the same time, the lower edge remains free so that insects crawling along the trunk can penetrate under the belt.

A belt lubricated inside with a sticky substance (for example, petroleum jelly) will become several times more effective than usual. The pests adhering to it cannot get out and die.

The catching belts are checked several times a week and the insects caught in them are destroyed.

The main pests of cherries include:

  • goldtail,
  • hawthorn,
  • cherry slimy sawfly,
  • cherry weevil,
  • ringed silkworm,
  • cherry moth,
  • cherry aphid.

Treating cherries from damage by caterpillars

Some insects inflict the most dangerous damage to cherry trees when they are in the phase of caterpillars or larvae.

Table: treatment of cherry trees from pest caterpillars

In addition to ready-made insecticidal preparations of chemical and biological action, gardeners in their summer cottages and backyard plots often use environmentally friendly folk remedies for the destruction of harmful insects.

Immediately after the cherry blossoms against the cherry weevil, spraying with a decoction of tomato tops is used:

  • Finely chop 1.5 kg of fresh tomato tops;
  • Boil for 30 minutes in a bucket (10 L) of water;
  • add 40 g of grated laundry or green soap;
  • mix thoroughly and strain.

To destroy aphids, weevils, hawthorn, cherry moth, you can spray cherries with a decoction of bitter wormwood:

  • dried stems of bitter wormwood (400 g) are finely cut;
  • insist in 10 liters of water for a day, then boil for half an hour;
  • add 40 g of grated laundry or green soap;
  • filter and spray trees with this infusion.

Treatment of trees from cherry aphids and ants

Cherry (black) aphid is a very small piercing-sucking insect (length 2-3 mm), found almost everywhere in gardens. Larvae and adults of this pest live and reproduce at the tops of the shoots, sucking juices from young foliage and ovaries. Damaged leaves curl up into a tube, turn brown and fall off. A weakened tree is attacked by other pests and diseases, as a result of which it can die.

The insect contributes to the formation of a sooty fungus on the leaves and shoots of cherries, which disrupts the normal process of photosynthesis of the plant and slows down its growth and development.

Sucking juices from leaves and young shoots, cherry aphid causes their damage and death.

Methods of dealing with cherry aphid can be conditionally divided into chemical (treating trees with insecticidal preparations) and ecological.

Environmental practices include:

  1. If the seedling is young, and the aphids are few, it is useful to wash it off 1-2 times a day with water from a hose under strong pressure. In hot weather, this should be done in the morning and evening to avoid sunburn of the leaves.
  2. You can spray the places where aphids accumulate with soapy water with the addition of various infusions and decoctions with a pungent odor:
    • dry orange peel,
    • tobacco leaves,
    • hot pepper pods,
    • tops of nightshade crops,
    • wormwood.
  3. It is necessary to destroy weeds in a timely manner and cut out the root growth of cherries, because this is where insects hibernate.
  4. It is recommended to plant flowers with a strong smell (nasturtium, marigolds) or herbs (dill, thyme, horseradish, fennel, etc.) in the near-stem circle of cherries.
  5. A lot of nitrogen fertilizers should not be applied. Abundant young growth of cherries attracts aphids in spring and summer, and the eggs of the pest winter in annual growths.
  6. It is desirable to attract natural enemies of aphids to the site - birds (tits and linnet), insects (hoverflies, ladybirds, wasps).

Video: ecological methods for the destruction of aphids

One of the measures to combat aphids is to combat ants. They carry aphids along fresh shoots, settle them there and feed on the sweet aphid secretions. There are a number of ways to get rid of ants in your garden. You can pour boiling water into the anthill or spray it with the Absolute insecticide. A good effect is provided by installing sticky trapping belts on the cherry trunk. Climbing up the trunk, the ants fall on the sticky surface and lose their ability to move. But in addition to the harm that ants cause by breeding aphids, they bring certain benefits, being garden attendants. In order not to disturb the ecological balance, you can simply try to move the anthill outside the site, saving the life of the ants.

One of the ways to fight ants is to install sticky hunting belts on the trunks.

If these methods of controlling aphids were insufficient or its colonies are too numerous, radical measures are taken - spraying with insecticidal preparations. They are divided into groups:

  • contact agents (instantaneous agents that are absorbed into the insect's body through its outer covers and paralyze it):
    • Arrivo,
    • Fufanon,
    • Novaktion,
    • Karbofos,
    • Kemifos;
  • means of intestinal action (getting into the body of the pest while eating, the active ingredients of the drug lead to its poisoning and death):
    • Spark,
    • Confidor,
    • BI-58 New,
    • Inta-Vir;
  • systemic insecticides (very effective drugs that have a long duration of action (from 2 weeks to 2 months, because they penetrate into plant tissues gradually, and are also resistant to washing):
    • Aktara,
    • Commander.
  • biological agents (their action is purposeful and affects only certain types of insect pests):
    • Fitoverm,
    • Iskra-Bio,
    • Actarin.

Contact agents and intestinal agents should not be used during cherry blossoms (this can lead to the destruction of pollinating insects) and a month before harvest. Biological agents are used in the spring before and after flowering, as well as during fruit setting.

Video: insecticide treatment for aphid cherries

Cherry processing from cherry fly

The cherry fly is a dark brown, shiny insect with a yellow head and black longitudinal stripes on the back. The flight of the pest coincides with the period of the formation of the ovary in the cherry. When the fruits begin to color, the fly lays eggs under their skin (one female - up to 150 eggs). After 6-10 days, the larvae are born, which feed on the pulp of the fruit. Damaged cherries darken, rot and fall off. The larvae finish their development within 15–20 days, then go into the soil, where they pupate.

The fight against cherry fly is carried out by deep digging of soil in near-trunk circles in early spring and autumn after leaf fall. Uncollected fruits should not be left on the branches. Damaged and mummified cherries must be collected and burned. Recommended insecticidal preparations for spraying are:

  • Lightning,
  • Spark,
  • Karate,
  • Inta-Vir.

They should be used according to the instructions. The first spraying of trees is carried out in mid-May, the second in early June.

Video: processing trees from a cherry fly

Protective measures against cherry flies are as follows: digging the soil in near-trunk circles by 15–20 cm in autumn and spring, complete harvesting. Spraying with any permitted insecticide is mandatory: the first — 10–12 days after the fly leaves, the second — 10–12 days later.

Seasons and terms of processing cherries from diseases and pests

The end of winter or early spring is the most appropriate time to carry out maintenance work in the garden before the start of the new summer cottage season. The trees are bare, in the absence of foliage, dry leaves entwined with cobwebs are very clearly visible, in which the larvae of silkworms, sawflies, weevils, golden-tails, and cherry flies winter. Young cherry shoots damaged by insects are the gateway for various infections and fungi that penetrate the tissues of the tree and destroy them.The most dangerous consequence of these processes can be the disease of the tree with black cancer, which leads to the death of the plant.

Video: processing trees from mosses and lichens in early spring

It is recommended to process the bark in the spring, since with the beginning of the growing season and active sap flow, it is easier for a tree to heal wounds, tighten damage with new plant tissues. During the life of a tree, the upper layer of its bark gradually dies off, becoming covered with cracks and furrows. Mosses and lichens settle on them, which do not harm the health of cherries. But larvae and egg-laying of insect pests can hibernate under lichens. They clean off dead bark and moss with hard metal brushes and special scrapers. This should be done carefully, trying not to touch the cambium and not injure the tree.

It is advisable to clean the bark after rain, when the dead layers saturated with moisture are easily removed.

It is recommended to lay a tarp or film under the tree so that pests that have fallen from under the bark do not fall into the soil. Then all pieces of exfoliated bark are collected and burned. The processed cherry stem and skeletal branches should be washed with one of the following aqueous solutions:

  • green soap - 400 g of soap per 10 liters of water;
  • copper sulfate - 100 g sulfate per 10 liters of water;
  • soda ash (lye) - 400 g of soda per 10 liters of water;
  • wood ash - boil 2.5 kg of ash in 5 liters of water, dilute with 1 bucket of water.

All branches affected by pests or fungal diseases are cut and burned. Sections are treated with garden pitch.

Video: processing cherries from pests and diseases in the fall

In the fall, in addition to top dressing, water-charging irrigation, sheltering trees from frost and protecting them from rodents, it is necessary to dig deeply and loosen the soil in the trunks and thoroughly spray the cherry trees. When digging the soil, you can find in it the cocoons of the cherry weevil caterpillars, the larvae of the slimy sawfly, the cherry fly and the moth that have fallen from the tree and are already prepared for wintering. They should be collected and be sure to burn together with damaged leaves and fruits that have remained under the tree since the summer. You also need to remove from the trunks and burn the trapping belts in which the pests remained.

In order to prevent fungal diseases, cherries need to be sprayed with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture (300 g of a mixture per 10 l of water) or with a 0.4% HOM preparation, and the soil in the trunks should be treated with a 5% solution of carbamide (urea) from calculation of 500 g of urea per 10 liters of water. After 2 weeks, it is advisable to repeat the treatment. If, during the summer season, numerous signs of damage to leaves and fruits by pests or fungal diseases were noted on the trees, they must be treated with a tank mixture of solutions of the Horus fungicide and Aktellik insecticide.

Video: scheme for processing cherries from diseases and pests

Types of preparations for treating cherries from diseases and pests

There are many ways to prevent cherry diseases or damage from insect pests. Maintaining tree health should be:

  • sufficient watering;
  • regular feeding;
  • weeding and loosening the soil with the destruction of weeds;
  • annual pruning.

Preventive measures also include periodic treatment of cherries with special substances that help trees survive in adverse weather or other conditions.

Table: the main types of drugs for the prevention and control of diseases and pests of cherries

In addition to classic cherry care products, non-standard substances have recently been widely used - gibberellin and medications: alcohol tincture of iodine and brilliant green solution (brilliant green). Gibberellin is a phytohormone that stimulates plant growth. On summer cottages and household plots, its variety is used - gibberellic acid GK3. The use of gibberellin allows you to extend the safety of the fruit during transportation and storage. Gibberellic acid is produced in the form of finished preparations:

  • Pollen,
  • Ovary,
  • Bud.

A solution of brilliant green is used after the cherry blossoms for better and faster fruit setting. By spilling the soil under the tree with a solution of greenery (20 g per 10 liters of water), you can destroy the larvae of the cherry slimy sawfly. Tincture of iodine is used to treat cherries from:

  • cytosporosis,
  • tuberculariosis,
  • scab,
  • fruit rot.

If the tree is healthy, its root and vegetative system develops correctly, it is able to resist and independently cope with a fungal disease or a small invasion of harmful insects. To maintain cherries in good shape, normal development and sustainable fruiting, it is advisable to carry out constant prevention of diseases and pests. In the arsenal of the gardener - a large number of funds and preparations.

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Cherry trees at different stages of development can infect about 200 different infections and more than 600 species of insect pests. The most common illnesses include:

  1. Clasterosporium disease (leaf spot) is a fungal disease that spreads along individual branches and affects the whole cherry or sweet cherry tree. When infected, leaves become covered with light brown specks, which quickly turn into holes. Sick foliage dies off, followed by buds, flowers and branches. Preventive measures - spraying the tree with copper oxychloride or a solution of Bordeaux liquid.
  2. Moniliosis (fruit rot) is a disease that develops rapidly in hot, humid weather and can destroy the entire berry crop. The fungus has been actively spreading spores since early spring, it is at this time that trees can be treated with Bordeaux liquid or fungicidal preparations for prevention.
  3. Coccomycosis is an infection that affects the leaves and berries of cherries. It appears as small red-brown spots on the tops of the leaves. Infected trees do not winter well and may die from frost. Disease prevention is the treatment of the garden with fungicidal preparations three times per season: before flowering, immediately after it and after harvesting.

In addition to the listed diseases, anthracnose, scab, rust, and gommosis are especially dangerous for cherry trees. As a preventive measure against these diseases, spraying of cherries and cherries with fungicidal agents is used.

Of the insect pests, the following species are especially often affected by cherries:

  1. Cherry aphid. The main habitat is young shoots of fruit trees. The insect lays eggs on them, from which new generations of parasites hatch every year already in the phase of bud swelling. Aphids suck the juices from the leaves, as a result they dry out completely. Regular treatments with folk remedies or modern insecticidal preparations are effective against the pest.
  2. Shoot moth. Insect caterpillars make their way into the buds, destroying them, gnawing young leaves, flower stamens and fruit ovaries. For the winter, the moth burrows into garden debris, so all plant residues from under the trees should be removed in a timely manner. A preventive measure to combat this pest is to treat the garden with insecticides.
  3. Cherry weevil. The pest beetle hibernates in the soil under fruit trees. It is activated with the first heat, starting to eat the buds, and with the arrival of summer - flowers and ovaries. In the surviving fruits, the weevil lays eggs, from which larvae appear and destroy the remnants of the crop. Wormy berries are home to a new generation of parasites. Deep loosening of the soil in autumn, treatment of trees with folk remedies and special preparations during the growing season helps to avoid the appearance of beetles.
  4. Hawthorn. Outwardly, the butterfly is very similar to the cabbage. It builds its nests right on the branches of cherries, and the hatched caterpillars feed on the buds and leaves of trees. Collecting and burning butterfly nests helps to significantly reduce the number of pests. It is possible to completely destroy the enemy with the help of insecticidal agents.


Early planting monitoring

For the first inspection of the plantings of currants, one must go before it leaves the state of winter dormancy. A general examination of the bushes will show if there are hypertrophied, swollen buds - an accurate sign of a kidney mite infection. We can decide whether to remove these buds manually or cut out the entire shoot (if there are a lot of them) and whether additional treatments with acaricides are required when positive temperatures are established.


Kidneys damaged by a kidney mite characteristically swell

We can also notice aphid eggs, thyroid clutches of eggs of leaf rollers, wintering cocoons of their caterpillars, coccid shields. The presence of twisted, dried tops of the bushes most often indicates a strong defeat of plants in the last season by American powdery mildew and the preservation of the pathogen (it successfully overwinters in the form of microscopic cleistothecia). Treatments against it should be started before the growth of new leaves in order to prevent primary infection of plants.

During the same examination, fungal lesions of the bark and wood can be noticed. For every 10 acres allocated for currants, you need to choose one bush and cut off 4 branches from it. Each - cut lengthwise and inspected for possible detection of glass cases or goldsmiths. In addition, we can immediately note bushes that need anti-aging pruning, severe mechanical damage received during the winter, etc.

There are a lot of pests in berry bushes and fruit trees. In the "Encyclopedia of Pests" you will find information on the most common.

  • Aphid garden
  • Scoops
  • Shields
  • Sawflies
  • Leaf rollers
  • Apple moth
  • Medianitsy


How to properly spray the garden in spring

Basic rules and recommendations for effective spring spraying of the garden against diseases and pests:

  • During the preparation of solutions and spraying of plants follow safety precautions... If the packaging of the drug (fungicide or insecticide) says that you need to wear special clothing (dressing gown, overalls, raincoat), goggles and a respirator, rubber gloves, then you need to wear it.
  • Processing should only be carried out in dry and calm weather.

In sunny weather, it is better to refrain from spraying, since, quickly drying out, the drugs become ineffective or do not work at all. Spraying is best done in cloudy, calm weather, but not in the rain either: after the rain, the branches are wet, they seem to have a thin "film" of water on them. And spraying is droplets of solution, which also cover the plant with a thin "film" of drops. If processing is carried out, then the concentration of the solution will decrease, and the processing efficiency will decrease.

  • Spraying is desirable to carry out early in the morning (after dew has dried) or late at night (after sunset).
  • Processing is always carried out exactly after spring pruningto further protect the cut sites (ideally if sprinkled with copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid, in other words, if the fungicide contains copper).

  • Do not do it spray during the flowering period specifically against pests (can harm bees and other pollinators). Allowed perhaps processing against diseases.
  • At each stage, you can use kthe same drugs (in order to save money), and new (with different active ingredients, so that there is no addiction - it will be more effective), or alternate (use alternately).
  • All prepared solutions should be filter meshso as not to clog the sprayer.
  • Suitable for dissolving almost all drugs room temperature water (for vitriol - it is advisable to use hot, about + 40-50 degrees).

And if you use a biological product, then it is better to take settled or filtered water, i.e. chlorine free.

  • If it rains immediately after treatment with a contact agent, the spraying should be repeated the next day.

It is another matter if you use a systemic drug that penetrates the plant within the first 2-3 hours after spraying.

  • You can cook tank mixwho will possess insecticidal and fungicidal properties (in this case, it is imperative to clarify the compatibility of drugs).

But! Some agronomists believe that do not immediately give a double chemical load on the plant... It is better to take a break for at least 1 day (for example, treat it with a fungicide on Saturday morning, and an insecticide on Sunday morning). You can also spray at intervals of 1 week, i.e. on one weekend they were treated for pests, on the next - for diseases (or vice versa).

The specifics of processing adult (old) and young trees

Adult trees and shrubs should preferably be treated in 4 stages, carrying out at least 4 sprays.

Until the tree blooms, insects stick to it less, therefore young seedlings and shrubs it will be enough to process only 2 times:

  1. on sleeping buds from diseases and hibernating pests
  2. "On a green cone" from insect pests.

Advice! Young pome and stone fruit trees are best processed 3 times. After flowering, when pea-sized ovaries are formed - from diseases, especially against moniliosis (monilial burn).

Features of processing fruit trees and berry bushes

In the spring, you need to process both fruit trees and shrubs. If you process only trees, and forget about shrubs, then some diseases and pests can again spread to the trees.

However, it should be borne in mind that, for example, currants begin their growing season earlier than most of the trees.

In general, as a rule, trees and shrubs are sprayed immediately in the spring, perhaps grapes processed separately, possibly still strawberries (garden strawberries).

Advice! On the specifics and differences in the processing of berry bushes (namely currants and raspberries) you can find out in the following video:

Video: protection and treatment of currants and raspberries from pests and diseases - how to spray shrubs in spring