Competent feeding of cherries from spring to autumn
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of feeding fruit trees, including cherries. The beneficial substances that the cherry receives with fertilizers help the tree to bloom safely, the fruit to set and ripen, the wood is well prepared for wintering. Healthy trees can also resist disease and pests.
Spring feeding of cherries
Depending on the time of use, spring fertilizers for cherries differ in composition and method of application. Correctly selected top dressing makes it possible to accelerate fruiting and increase crop yield, increase the tree's resistance to diseases and pests, and improve the winter hardiness of cherries. During spring, the trees are fed three times:
- in March - before bud break;
- in late April-early May - during the flowering period;
- after flowering, in the process of fruit setting.
For each feeding period, certain nutrient compositions are used that most effectively affect the development of cherries in a particular case. In addition to traditional organic fertilizers and in addition to them, in the spring, gardeners actively use mineral supplements to feed fruit crops. As a rule, urea (urea), varieties of nitrate (ammonium, potassium, sodium, etc.), nitrophoska, ammofoska, azofoska and complex combined preparations with microelements are used as spring fertilizers.
Video: nitrogen mineral fertilizing for cherries
Fertilizing cherries with urea
The most demanded element for plant nutrition in early spring is nitrogen, which promotes the growth and development of young shoots, the growth of leaf mass, the formation of flower buds and fruit set after flowering. This food element is contained in organic fertilizers (manure, compost) and mineral (urea, ammonium nitrate). Although rotted manure contains nitrogen and other macro- and microelements in the ratio necessary for plants, it is not always possible to use them in a personal (summer cottage) plot. In this case, urea (urea) acts as a nitrogen fertilizer for the first feeding. Its composition contains up to 46% nitrogen, which determines the high efficiency of this top dressing.
Photo gallery: using urea as a spring feeding
Among gardeners, there is an opinion that the easiest way to use urea fertilization is by scattering granules over the snow that is beginning to melt: together with melt water, the fertilizer is absorbed into the soil and absorbed by the roots of the tree. However, this opinion is erroneous. Given the ability of carbamide to quickly decompose into ammonium salts and gaseous ammonia, there is a risk of loss of nutrients, which are simply washed off by melt water, not having time to be absorbed into the frozen soil. Therefore, the first spring feeding of cherries is recommended by spraying the crown with a urea solution in the ratio of 20-30 g of fertilizer per 10 liters of water. For the second and third dressings, which are made already at a positive soil temperature, you can use fertilization in the trunk circle. It is also advisable to dissolve urea in the amount of 100–120 g in 10 liters of water, spill the groove of the trunk circle with a solution and, after absorption, fill it with soil or mulch with earth or peat. All root dressing should be combined with cherry watering (3–6 buckets per tree).
Video: feeding cherries with urea
If you mix 700 g of urea and 50 g of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water, you can get a double effect from the use of this mixture: urea gives the tree the first top dressing, and copper sulfate destroys hibernating pests (weevil, aphids). In addition, the combination of these substances makes it possible to slow down the vegetation process by about 7-10 days. This will allow to move the beginning of cherry blossoms for the same period and avoid damage to flower buds in the event of spring frosts. Early spring spraying should be done at a positive air temperature (+ 5-10ºFROM).
Liming the soil in the process of feeding cherries
Cherry trees do not grow well and develop incorrectly on soils with excessive moisture and high acidity levels. The best soils for growing this culture are loose, light sandy loams and loams, carbonate (with a slightly alkaline reaction) chernozems and soils containing crushed stone. The acid reaction index should be close to neutral (pH 6.5–7.0). To deoxidize the soil with an increased acidity index, slaked lime or dolomite flour is used, which are added when planting a seedling in a planting pit. In the future, liming of the soil is carried out once every three to four years by introducing 300-800 g of lime material per 1m² surface. For light sandy loam soil, the amount of lime is reduced to 300-500 g per 1m²... As a folk remedy that reduces the acidity of the soil and at the same time increases the calcium content in it, building chalk is used, slaked with vinegar (one liter of 9% vinegar is added to 200 g of chalk). The resulting solution is introduced into the trunk circle, combining with the next watering of the tree.
Video: using chalk for liming the soil
Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers
Mineral fertilizers, applied in the spring in the form of root dressings or by spraying the crown, allow cherry trees to bloom successfully even in adverse weather conditions and set fruits, and also promote fruit ripening during the summer. The main mineral dressings include compositions containing macroelements potassium, nitrogen, magnesium, sulfur and trace elements boron, manganese, molybdenum and others. Magnesium and potassium are used in the form of sulfates, nitrogen - in the form of ammonium nitrate, phosphorus - in the composition of simple and double superphosphate. A very good result is obtained by feeding cherries with complex mineral compositions: Nitrofosk, Nitroammofosk, Diammofosk, Azofosk, etc. In these fertilizers, all the necessary substances are selected in the optimal ratio to obtain the maximum effect when using them. This eliminates the need to use simple fertilizers separately.
Photo gallery: basic mineral fertilizers for spring feeding of cherries
Video: fertilizing with mineral fertilizers
When feeding cherries in spring with mineral fertilizers, when calculating their amount, the age of the trees should be taken into account. For young non-fruiting cherries, it is recommended to apply ammonium nitrate under the root (15–20 g per 1m² near-trunk circle), followed by embedding into the soil to a depth of 7–10 cm and watering with sufficient water (2–4 buckets). Mature trees (over four years old) are fed as follows:
- before flowering, root feeding is performed with ammonium nitrate (20 g per 1 m² trunk circle);
- 10-12 days after flowering, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers should be added (1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate and 1.5 cups of superphosphate are diluted in 10 liters of water - consumption per 1 m² trunk circle).
Fertilizing cherries after coccomycosis and other diseases
The main care for cherries after suffering fungal diseases and bacterial infections consists in enhanced nutrition of the roots and vegetative organs to strengthen the immune system and increase the tree's resistance in the process of its development. To do this, you should use a combination of organic fertilizing (manure, compost, peat), which contains nitrogen in its natural form, and mineral fertilizers, in which potassium (magnesium and potassium sulfates) and phosphorus (simple and double superphosphate) are selected in the optimal ratio for the most effective plant nutrition. The consumption of fertilizers for the restoration of trees after diseases should be increased by 1.5 times in comparison with the usual top dressing (see the section above).
Video: feeding cherries to strengthen immunity
The use of the combined fertilizer MicroMix allows you to solve several problems at once when restoring a cherry tree after an illness. One granule of this preparation contains a full set of all the necessary substances, which allows you to bring to the plant a perfectly balanced set of all macro- and easily digestible microelements.
Top dressing of young cherries
If during planting all the necessary fertilizers were introduced into the planting pit, then in the current and next year, spring feeding can be omitted. It is recommended to start fertilizing young cherries from the third year after planting, i.e. when the tree enters the fruiting age. The first feeding is carried out in the spring in the amount of 1 tbsp. a spoonful of ammonium nitrate under one tree. After flowering and the appearance of the first ovaries, you can feed the cherry with Nitroammophos (in the same amount).
Video: feeding young cherries
In the fall, it is useful to add potash and phosphorus fertilizers under the cherry, which contribute to the laying of fruit buds of the next year and help the wood of annual shoots to ripen before winter. The best natural potassium-phosphorus fertilizer is traditionally considered wood ash, which, in addition to phosphorus and potassium, contains magnesium, calcium and other trace elements that provide the tree with nutrients for a safe wintering. In the near-trunk circle of young cherries, 0.5 liters of ash are introduced, and the soil is loosened to a depth of 5–7 cm. For mature trees, take a liter jar of top dressing. Instead of wood ash, you can use mineral fertilizers: the consumption per tree is 40–80 g of double superphosphate and the same amount of potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate) or potassium magnesium. Also embed in the soil to a depth of 5 cm, loosening the soil.
In the fall, it is important to apply top dressing in September, before the cold weather, while the roots are actively working.
Providing cherry trees with the necessary nutrients during the spring growing season, we will get a guarantee of their correct development, resistance to adverse conditions and a good harvest.
Fertilizing cherries all year round
Fruit trees need systematic fertilization, without which they begin to hurt and bring a meager harvest. Fertilizing cherries in autumn and spring is aimed at strengthening the immune system and abundant fruiting. Let's consider the basic principles of using fertilizers in different seasons of the year.
Fertilizer types for cherries
For fertilization, organic fertilizing and agrochemicals are used. Consider the most commonly used fertilizers:
- potash fertilizers
- ammonium nitrate
Note! The first two years after the rooting of a young tree in the hole, feeding is not carried out.
Fertilizers are applied in two ways:
- root irrigation
- irrigation of the crown and trunk.
Watering the tree is carried out in a circle near the trunk. One young tree takes up to three liters of water; for an adult cherry, at least six buckets are required. After abundant watering, top dressing is applied. When using dry agrochemicals, the granules are shallowly embedded in the soil with a pitchfork or a rake (a shovel is not used in these cases).
Spraying with solutions begins 2 years after planting the seedling. When processing trees, the leaves, trunk and root circle are thoroughly moistened. Irrigation is carried out with a special sprayer.
Organic matter not only enriches the fertile layer with nutrients, but also structures it well: it makes it loose and breathable. Compost and ash are used as a source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Compost plentifully saturates the soil with nutrients. The compost heap is formed from peat, kitchen waste, chicken / cow dung. Also, the compost heap is watered with a solution of nitrate, superphosphate and urea. The compost matures for 3-4 months, and it takes up to 5 kg of the finished mass to feed a young seedling. For an adult cherry, you need 30 kg of compost mass.
Ash is a source of phosphorus and potassium, which are essential for cherries. The powder also contains other useful trace elements: zinc, iron, sulfur, calcium and magnesium. Plants are fertilized with ash throughout the growing season, and in preparation for winter, ash is an indispensable component.
Lime is necessary not only for whitewashing the trunks, but also for alkalizing the earth. Cherries do not like acidified soil, so it must be regularly deacidified with lime. Also, lime contains a sufficient percentage of calcium, which strengthens the root system and increases the immunity of plants. Dolomite has the same qualities.
Siderata are a quick and easy way to enrich the land with essential trace elements. To do this, plants are planted in the near-stem circle, then the stems 15 cm high are simply dropped into the ground. You can grow green manure in the garden, and then mow and bury it in the tree trunk circle. When decomposing, green manure gives the soil all the necessary substances (especially nitrogen).
Urea (carbamide) contains up to 46% nitrogen, which is very important for the growth of green mass. Urea is often combined with potash fertilizers, which forms a complete nutritional complex for spring feeding of fruit trees. In addition to nutrition, urea protects seedlings from fungal mold - coccomycosis. Trunks and branches are treated with it before the first frosts.
Superphosphate contains up to 50% phosphorus compounds, useful for the development of seedlings. Phosphorus contributes to the development of a strong root system (especially important for young seedlings) and improves the palatability of the fruit. With a lack of phosphorus, the leaves become covered with yellow spots and acquire a purple hue. However, superphosphate cannot be used together with urea, chalk and nitrate. A week should pass between fertilization.
Potassium salts ensure the resistance of seedlings to frost, so they must be added in preparation for winter. However, the dosage should be strictly observed, because an excess of chlorine (included in the composition) negatively affects the well-being of cherries.
Ammonium nitrate replaces urea, as it contains a sufficient percentage of nitrogen. The potassium content has a beneficial effect on the taste characteristics of the fruit and on the active planting of the crown.
Top dressing of cherries in spring
In spring, all plants are in dire need of nitrogen, which activates the rapid development of leaves. The source of nitrogen is ammonium nitrate and urea (carbamide). Fertilizers are laid even before the cherry blossoms begin. To do this, the trunk circle is abundantly moistened and the ground is irrigated with the prepared solution. Dry agrochemicals (granules) can also be added, but the aqueous solution penetrates the ground faster and is absorbed by the root system.
Two-year-old trees are sprayed with a urea solution before flowering: take no more than 30 g per bucket of water. For root feeding, saltpeter is used: 20 g of powder per square meter of the trunk circle.
Trees older than 4 years old are fed with saltpeter and urea in the same proportion before flowering. During flowering, trees are fertilized with organic matter: infusion of cow dung and ash. For one seven-year-old tree, take a bucket of infusion (a liter of mullein and a glass of ash for a bucket of water), for older trees, up to three buckets of infusion are consumed.
After flowering, the cherry needs additional minerals, so the tree is fertilized with humus or a solution of mullein / chicken droppings. Before watering, the trunk circle is well irrigated with clean water, and then watered with an organic solution.Also, gardeners recommend using an ash solution to feed cherries in the spring.
To attract bees during cherry blossoms, the tree is sprayed with a honey solution. To do this, you need to dissolve a tablespoon of honey in a bucket.
In the summer, the tree also needs nourishment. Organic fertilizers are used: humus, herbal infusion, compost. Only mature trees are processed: from four years old. At the beginning of June, ammophoska (or its derivatives) is used. To fill 1 m2 of the groove of the trunk circle, 30 g of powder is consumed.
In August, adult trees also need replenishment. Feeding with phosphates and ash is used. One and a half liters of a working solution of superphosphate (25 g per bucket) and ash mixture (2 glasses of ash per bucket) are consumed per square meter of the near-stem furrow.
Note! In August, buds are laid for a new harvest, so feeding the cherries is extremely necessary.
As soon as the fruits are harvested, the cherries must be fed foliarly - by spraying. Foliar feeding of cherries quickly saturates the tree with the necessary substances, and also repels pests and strengthens the immune system.
In the summer, cherries are treated with iron vitriol. The crown and the trunk circle (in the crown projection) are well moistened with the solution. The treatment is carried out in dry, calm weather so that the precipitation does not wash away the solution.
In autumn, fruit trees are prepared for winter frosts by supplying them with complex fertilizers. However, the composition of fertilizers should not contain nitrogen, since this microelement enhances landscaping.
Autumn work begins immediately after the leaves fall and the branches are cut. The near-trunk circle is carefully protected from litter, and the earth is dug deeply. After digging, fertilizer is applied.
Note! In autumn, digging is carried out with a pitchfork, not a shovel. Dug earth freezes less than compacted one.
In autumn, it is best to apply mixed organic-chemical fertilizers:
- chicken solution
- a piece of chalk.
Chalk is added if the wood is in dire need of iron.
Cherry belongs to lovers of alkaline soil, so gardeners periodically liming the soil around the trunk.
Autumn preparation is also necessary for young two-year-old trees. The seedlings are fed with superphosphate (up to 60 g per square meter of the near-stem furrow) and an aqueous mixture of potassium sulfate (25 g of an agrochemical is dissolved in a bucket). Organic fertilizing (compost or humus) is laid every three years: 4-5 kg of mass is consumed per square meter of the near-trunk furrow.
Fallen leaves must be burned: pests may be on it.
Trees from four to seven years old must be sprayed with a carbamide solution after the first frost. This will provide them with easy wintering. For the mixture, take 25 g of urea per bucket. For root feeding, 310 g of superphosphate is used (if you take double superphosphate, then the volume is halved). In addition to superphosphate, cherries are fed with an ash solution (it is enough to dilute one glass of wood ash in a bucket). Once every three years, cherries need humus or compost (they put up to 40 kg of organic matter in the trunk circle).
Old trees (after 7 years) are also sprayed with a carbamide solution after frost. Root feeding is carried out by introducing a superphosphate solution in a volume of 0.5 kg for one tree. Cherry also needs potassium complexes (sulphate or potassium chloride). Humus / compost is placed every three years in a volume of 50 kg for one tree.
Autumn care allows the trees to overwinter without any problems, and in spring they wake up quickly. Also, top dressing protects cherries from fungal diseases and attacks of insect pests. Experienced gardeners whitewash the trunks in the fall so that pests do not settle under the bark for the winter.
In order to properly fertilize fruit trees, it is necessary to form a near-stem circle. It is a furrow up to 30 cm wide and up to 25 cm deep. Top dressing is applied to this furrow. The distance of the furrow from the trunk changes with the age of the tree and is consistent with the projection of the crown:
- young seedlings - up to 15 cm
- biennial tree - up to 35 cm
- three-year tree - up to half a meter
- older trees - according to crown projection or 1.5 more.
In spring, the trunk circle is the first to be freed from snow so that the earth above the roots warms up well in the sun. After the earth dries up in the near-trunk circle, it must be dug up (at least 15 cm deep). Digging is carried out twice during the summer and when preparing cherries for winter.
So that moisture is better preserved in the near-trunk circle, it is mulched after watering: humus, peat or dry / rotted manure are placed. In the spring, mulch is laid on top, in the summer it is dropped into the ground. Autumn mulching of the trunk circle protects the root system from the cold.
Inexperienced gardeners spread fertilizers near the trunk of the tree, but this does not benefit the cherry: the suction roots are located in the projection of the crown, and not at the trunk.
Fertilizing cherries creates favorable conditions for harvesting a bountiful harvest. For feeding, organic substances and agrochemicals are added. In the spring, cherry trees are fed with a large amount of nitrogenous substances for active landscaping and flowering, in the summer they apply phosphorus and potash fertilizers, and in the fall the trees are prepared for the winter cold.
Fertilizers for seedlings: when and what to apply?
Competent and timely fertilization is the key to the harmonious development of seedlings. However, many gardeners are poorly informed about when and what top dressing to apply. This article will help you understand all the intricacies of an important process aimed at increasing the productivity of plant growth.
What substances do seedlings need?
Proper fertilization of the soil will create favorable conditions for the existence of crops and avoid problems in the future. But it is necessary to fertilize with knowledge of the matter. Uncontrolled introduction of organic matter or complex fertilizing can harm. So, how to feed the seedlings?
Young plants primarily need phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. Usually it is them that are lacking in the soil, which means that this should be compensated for. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon are equally important components of "excellent health". If the nutritional value of the soil leaves much to be desired, then the seedlings will experience a lack of these elements of the periodic table. But calcium, sulfur, magnesium, manganese at the beginning of the journey requires a minimum amount.
The need for certain fertilizers depends on the type of crops that you have planted. So, pears and apple trees are more in need of organic matter. Cherries and apricots are in minerals.
How do you know what exactly is missing?
If the seedlings do not take root well, you should take a closer look at them. With a careful visual examination, you will surely find characteristic signs of a deficiency of this or that element.
Thin weak stems, small pale leaves indicate that the seedlings lack nitrogen. Do the leaves dry at the edges, turn yellow or brown? You need potassium. An acute lack of magnesium manifests itself in the form of blanching leaves, which subsequently turn yellow and fall off.
Small and almost black foliage, mainly in the lower part of the plant, is a signal that phosphorus should be fed. The lack of iron is indicated by intense wilting of leaves and shoots. Most often, raspberries, grapes, apple trees, plums need iron. But when there is not enough copper, the leaves at the tips brighten, become lethargic and soon die off.
Phosphorus and Potassium: What You Need to Know
Experts advise adding phosphorus and potassium only in the 4th year after planting. Better to do this in the fall, because such complexes contain difficult-to-digest substances. An exception is made for fruiting plants - they are fed in the spring.
Many people apply this fertilizer during fruit setting. And they are doing the right thing - it has a beneficial effect on the quality and quantity of the crop.
So what fertilizer for seedlings containing potassium and phosphorus should be applied first?
- potassium sulfate it is used as the main fertilizer for crops that bear fruit. The content of the main active ingredient is 50%. It is introduced mainly in the spring
- potassium salt... The universal top dressing is suitable for any type of crop. The content of the main substance is 40%. Submitted in autumn
- superphosphate... Fertilizer in granules. The phosphoric acid content is up to 20%. Introduced at the rate of 35-40 g / m2
- phosphate rock... Not only a valuable fertilizer, but also an effective neutralizer of increased soil acidity. The phosphorus content varies from 15 to 35%. Focused on feeding any fruit trees.
There are special mixtures containing other substances in addition to potassium and phosphorus. For example, nitrophoska and diammofoska include potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen in different proportions.
Nitrogen: when and how to apply?
If the soil was fertilized with nitrogen during planting, then the first top dressing is practiced in the 3rd year after planting. Most of the nitrogen is applied in spring, less in autumn. Calculated as follows: 20 g / m2 (for poor soils) or 10 g / m2 (for fertile). If you plan to apply nitrogen, then it is worth using:
- urea (carbimide)... Contains rapidly assimilable nitrogen. Young plantings can be fertilized with urea in two ways: by dropping the dry mixture into the trunk circles or by spraying the trunk and leaves with a solution (for this, 0.5 kg of carbamide is dissolved in a bucket of water)
- ammonium nitrate... Top dressing in granules is well absorbed by seedlings. Saltpeter can be used dry (15 g / m2) and liquid (25 g / bucket of water)
- compost, bird droppings and manure... Designed to feed the soil of medium fertility. They contain a small amount of nitrogen. Optimal as a supplement to other mineral complexes.
Fragile seedlings cannot be fertilized with nitrogen. This will significantly extend the growing season and reduce frost resistance.
Organic: rules to remember
The most useful fertilizer for seedlings is manure. It should be entered in the 3rd year. Chicken droppings are especially valuable. They fertilize the soil in the spring at the rate of 5 kg / m2. For fertilizing fruit trees, manure is diluted with water (1 kg / bucket of water) and infused for 4-5 days. In autumn, the litter dosage is reduced to 0.3 kg / m2. Manure from pets is applied exclusively in a rotted state. Fertilize with manure once every 3 years. If the land is very poor, it can be done once every 2 years.
Another useful organic fertilizer is peat. Improves air permeability and soil structure. Furnace ash reduces the acidity of the earth. It is brought in at the rate of 100 g / m2. Mix with other organics or prepare a solution.
Compost deserves special attention. It is brought in in the first year after planting. Increases the nutrient content of the soil, enriches it with humus and improves aeration. Contains substances necessary for seedlings to grow.
High-quality compost can successfully replace any mineral mixture. This makes composting easy. To do this, in the fall, they dig a trench and fill it with leaves, grass, sawdust, tops, tea leaves and other waste. They fill the compost pit with earth and safely forget about it until spring. Over the winter, everything you put into it will turn into a wonderful fertilizer.
The interval between dressings is 2 seasons. The optimal time for composting is September-October. Important: the compost is slightly dug into the top layer of the earth or simply laid out near the tree trunks.
Not sure what else to feed the seedlings with? Ready-made fertilizers have proven themselves to be excellent - "Aquarin", "Kemira", "Ekofoska", "AVA", "Uniflor-growth", "Florist", "Ferovit", "Uniflor". The main thing is to carefully read the instructions (the composition of the preparations is different) and observe the dosage.
Video tips for the correct fertilization of seedlings
Application for the fight against fungal diseases
Iron vitriol is able to cope with many fungal plant infections. It acts as a contact fungicide (that is, as a substance that cannot penetrate the cells and the space between them), therefore, it is washed off rather quickly (within 2 weeks) by rains. To get rid of fungal diseases, it is enough to use a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate.
Fungal disease of grapes (mildew)
It must be remembered that surface treatment with this solution cannot completely destroy the fungus, since its spores can persist in hard-to-reach places. So for a more reliable result, it is better to treat with products containing copper. You can alternate the use of these drugs: spray it with copper sulfate in the spring, and treat it with iron in the fall. It should also be borne in mind that ferrous sulfate is not able to protect your plants from bacterial infections.
Before planting seedlings, a plot is marked out (if several trees are planted). It is necessary to take into account the fact that the distance between mature trees should be at least 4-5 meters. Between the rows at least 5 meters. When the site is marked out, they begin to prepare the holes. A hole is dug 80x80 cm. The depth is usually from 40 to 50 cm. If the soil is not very fertile, then a hole is dug out about 70 cm deep and filled with fertilizer.
A few days before planting, it is recommended to keep the seedlings in water with the addition of special growth stimulants (Zircon and the like). Also, you can treat the root system with a solution of potassium permanganate or potassium humate in order to protect the plant from possible fungal diseases. But this procedure is carried out only when the seedling has a weak root system.
The process of planting a future tree itself is as follows:
- Prepare the pit. Typically, it is 50 cm deep, but here you already need to build on the conditions. If the soil is not nutritious, then the pit is made larger. The same goes for the root system. The larger it is, the deeper and wider the hole is made.
- Make a fertilized mixture. To do this, mix 2 or 3 buckets of humus, 1 kg of wood ash, 100 grams of superphosphate and 80 grams of potassium sulfate. All this mixture goes into one hole.
- The bottom of the pit is loosened by 10 cm and a bucket of water is poured out. The water should be warm, outside temperature.
- After the water is absorbed, the nutrient substrate that was prepared earlier is added to the pit. The hole is approximately 2/3 full. The soil is compacted.
- A peg is driven into the center, which will serve as the future support for our seedling. The diameter of the peg is about 5 cm, and its height is up to 1.5 m. This should be done before planting the seedling, and not after, so as not to damage its root system. Then the peg is sprinkled with earth, creating a so-called mound at its base.
- Before planting a seedling, it must be inspected again for damaged roots. If any, they are removed immediately.
- The seedling is placed in the ground. It must be planted so that the root collar is approximately 6 cm above the ground level.
- The roots spread down the mound.
- Then, carefully begin to sprinkle the seedling with soil. The soil is poured in layers, and compacted in layers.
- When the root system is hidden under a 15 cm layer of soil, the seedling is well watered, and then completely covered with earth.
If blueberries do not develop well, you need to replenish the soil with a mineral fertilizer containing nitrogen. The most popular among experienced gardeners is ammonium sulfate.
The composition of this substance also includes sulfur, which improves the quality of the berries and increases the shelf life.
This fertilizer is mainly applied dry. The required amount of powder is scattered between the rows. When using sawdust as mulch, the dosage is doubled.
The first time a nitrogen-containing substance is added to the soil before planting blueberries.In this case, the annual rate of ammonium sulfate should not exceed 1 tablespoon of powder. Then, until the plant reaches 6 years old, the dose is doubled annually. The seedlings are fed three times per season:
- in early spring, adding half the annual rate
- in May - 30%
- at the beginning of June - 20%.
Ammonium sulfate dissolves quickly in water, so it can also be used in liquid form. You need to water carefully, trying not to get on the leaves.
Ammonium Sulfate Benefits:
- completely absorbed by the roots
- does not contain toxic components
- increases the acidity of the soil, which is important for blueberries.
Usually, phosphorus reserves are replenished by adding superphosphate to the soil. But for blueberries, phosphate rock is more suitable. It is intended for plants that prefer acidic soils.
This fertilizer contains:
- 20-30% phosphorus
- 30% calcium
- 2% magnesium.
In addition, it contains iron, copper, sulfur, and aluminum.
Attention! Application phosphate rock leads to a decrease in soil acidity... Monitor the pH level, acidifying the soil as needed.
A good effect is achieved by combining ammonium sulfate with phosphate rock.
The magnesium balance in the soil is restored with magnesium sulfate. For this, 100 gr. the substance is diluted in 10 liters. water and spray shrubs.
The lack of potassium in blueberries is compensated by the addition of potassium sulfate, a grayish-white powder that easily dissolves in water. The composition of the substance, in addition to potassium, includes sulfur, magnesium, calcium. You can apply potash fertilizer in any of three ways:
- apply dry top dressing to the soil
- use solution
- spray foliage.
Another advantage of this fertilizer is that it helps protect the plant from pests and increases its frost resistance.
Colloidal sulfur is used as a soil acidifier for blueberries. Due to the poor solubility in water, dry powder is used. Usually it is poured under the mulch or buried between the rows of the berry tree 12 cm deep into the ground.
It is more expedient to provide the berry with all the necessary vitamins with the help of special complex preparations intended for this culture.
There are some features in feeding garden plants in spring that every gardener must know:
• Water acts as a carrier of chemicals from top dressing to the roots of a tree or bush, therefore, after applying dry fertilizer, thorough watering is required.
• Liquid top dressing should not be applied to dry soil to avoid burns on the roots.
• Horticultural crops do not need to be fertilized for the first year after planting.
• Fertilization is best done in the evening.
• When feeding, it is important to take into account that the root system of an adult tree extends beyond the boundaries of its crown by about 50 cm.
Important! An excess of nutrients is just as dangerous as a lack of them. Therefore, observe the measure in everything, and your fruit trees will thank you for their care with a generous harvest.
When feeding trees, two important aspects must be taken into account: the soil growing conditions and their age. In the first 3-4 years, feeding is not necessary if a sufficient amount of substrate was introduced when planting the tree. Too zealous with feeding is undesirable, since oversaturation with nutrients entails a decrease in fertility.
Based on the type of soil, it is determined which fertilizers for fruit trees, and in what quantity, will be most effective. For example, chernozem contains a sufficient amount of nitrogen, therefore, treatment with nitrogen fertilizers is not recommended. But with sandy and clay soils, the situation is the opposite.