The gorse (Genista) is a perennial vine or shrub from the legume family. The plant is widely known in Western Europe and northern Africa. A lush crown of green foliage at the peak of development is covered with golden inflorescences. The gorse prefers a sunny, open area, so it is recommended to plant the crop on lawns or slopes. The shrub creates a colorful corner on the garden plot, has useful healing properties and is used as a folk remedy in the treatment of certain diseases.
Description of the plant
Gorse grows in the form of a small shrub or liana-like plant, with lily stems. Green thin shoots are smooth or covered with thorns. The length of the highest shoots is 0.3-1.7 m. The gorse semi-shrubs are divided into two types: erect and creeping. The stems are covered with many lateral processes. The leaf blades are lanceolate and slightly elongated. In some species of perennial, the dense dark green crown is devoid of lint, while in others it contains a short layer of villi. The leaves are trifoliate or simple, sit on the stems in regular order and keep on small petioles.
The three-year-old plant gradually begins to bloom. Yellow-colored inflorescences open in June and remain fresh for two weeks to two months. Flowers are collected in the axils and cover the ends of young shoots. The flowering of the species is abundant. The green foliage is almost invisible under the bright yellow veil of flowers. At the end of summer, elongated thin beans containing black long grains with a shiny skin ripen on the branches.
Growing gorse is done by seed or cuttings. Seeds are harvested in August, when the beans are fully ripe. If the fruits turn brown, this means that they are ripe. The seeds extracted from the cracked beans are dried and immediately sown in open ground. The sowing depth of 3 cm is adhered to. The seeds are lightly sprinkled with earth and watered. Winter-hardened material emerges in spring. Bushes bloom only at two or three years of age.
Certain varieties of gorse are grown using apical cuttings, cut in June. Rooting successfully occurs without any preparatory processing measures. For the roots to form faster, the seedlings are covered with protective material or placed in greenhouses. The percentage of rooted seedlings is low compared to seed production.
Planting and caring for gorse
Grooming outdoors is simple. He takes root well in a new place. The site must be on a slope or rise above the surface. The soil for planting is selected loose and sandy with the addition of lime. Young plants survive the transplant painlessly, but it is better to leave adult specimens in the same place. In three-year-old bushes, active growth of the rhizome is observed. The lifespan of this representative of Legumes is short. After ten years, the shoots are bare, strongly elongated and lose their decorative effect. It is better to replace old bushes with new seedlings.
The gorse does not tolerate direct sunlight, but develops only under intense light. It is recommended to choose the location of the future shrub in an open area. In the shade, the shoots lose their foliage. Flowering becomes rare.
Drought will not cause much harm to the perennial. The only threat is posed by severe frosts, therefore it is recommended to cover the bushes with spruce or non-woven material. If the winter is snowy, the plant does not need shelter.
Excess moisture in the soil negatively affects the development of seedlings. Natural rainfall is sufficient to feed the roots. When there is no rain for a long time, regular watering is organized.
The growing crown needs pruning. The shoots are shortened in the spring. The bushes can be shaped in any shape. Because of the thorns, it is worth handling the bushes very carefully.
Types and varieties of gorse with photo
In accordance with the classification distinction, there are about 125 species and varieties of gorse. Part is suitable for growing in the middle zone of the Russian Federation.
Dyeing gorse (Genista tinctoria)
It grows in the west of Siberia, Kazakhstan and the countries of the Middle East. The green crown of the shrub, reaching no more than a meter, looks spreading and lush. Shoots spread along the ground and are covered with smooth narrow oblong leaves. Their size is about 2.5 cm. The species blooms with yellow clusters, which are concentrated at the top of the stems. The budding period opens in early June and ends after 65 days or earlier, depending on weather conditions. Narrow fruits emerge from pollinated inflorescences. There is a yellow pigment in the tissues of leaves and flowers, so the plant has been used for a long time to make yellow paint. The name of the species speaks for itself.
German gorse (Genista germanica)
A shrub of medium height belongs to heat-loving crops. Erect branches with pubescent bark. Leaves of a sessile lanceolate shape also have a layer of pile on the back of the plate. A long green thorn sticks out near the base of the leaf. Inflorescences-spikelets of golden color bloom in June and sit on the branches for several months until they are replaced by other fresh flowers. Ripening occurs by October. The species is considered to be quite frost-resistant compared to other representatives.
Spanish gorse (Genista hispanica)
The plant is a round-shaped bushes with thorny shoots, reaching a height of no more than half a meter. Leaves are lanceolate, shining in the light up to 1 cm long. Inflorescences appear on the bushes several times per season. The first stage begins in June, when the heads show dense bright lemon-colored flowers. Then flowering is repeated at the end of summer. It is not so abundant, however, it is still attractive and colorful. The shrub is resistant to low temperatures.
Lydian gorse (Genista lydia)
The perennial distribution region covers the southern regions of Europe. The bushes can withstand frosts down to -15 ° C. Shoots covered with rich green oval-shaped leaves bend to the ground. This species is characterized by earlier and abundant flowering.
Gorse in landscape design
The value of gorse has long been proven in landscape design. Bright, abundantly flowering bushes will always decorate the site and diversify the flower bed around the house. It is better to decorate rocky slopes and hillocks with creeping low species of this culture. The developed rhizome protects the soil from shedding.
Useful properties of gorse
The gorse tissues contain tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, essential oils. Since the perennial has been little studied, its use in official medicine is limited. However, decoctions and tinctures of gorse leaves and flowers are widely used as folk remedies that have a laxative, sedative and diuretic effect. Perennial herbal ingredients allow you to remove toxins, heal skin rashes and heal open wounds. Medicinal fees based on gorse help fight the following diseases:
- allergic dermatitis;
- bronchial asthma.
Genista tinctoria (gorse dyes)
Warts, papillomas are smeared with leaf juice. Abuse of the plant and use in large doses leads to poisoning. It is not recommended to take drugs for people suffering from hypertension, pregnant women and give them to small children.
The height of plants, depending on the species and variety, ranges from 0.2 to 1.2 m. Some species have thorns.
The gorse blooms for 3 - 6 years of cultivation. The duration of flowering in different species ranges from 15 to 60 days (June - early August).
In landscape design gorsevery often used for landscaping the slopes of the southern and southeastern exposures. Gorse fixes stony placers very well. The shrub can be successfully grown on infertile, dry, calcareous soils. When
the participation of gorse can create picturesque compositions for rocky gardens and slopes, alpine hills and rockeries, as well as borders in the foreground of tree and shrub groups.
Perfect companions for gorse landscape compositions will include ash-leaved maple “Flamingo”, Ottawa barberry “Superba”, scaly juniper “Blue Carpet”, pointed yew, winged euonymus, spread-out cotoneaster, hanging forsythia, chaenomeles “Nicoline”. From perennials - toothed buzulnik, elecampane large-flowered and others.
To achieve the maximum decorative effect, the plants must be planted in groups, since in bright sunlight a colorful flowering of gorse appears, in addition, the inflorescences are formed the most complete.
The main differences between species and varieties of gorse are the size of the shrub and its duration of flowering. Open gorse (Genista humifusa), hairy gorse (Genista pilosa) and ovoid gorse (Genista ovata) reach heights of 0.2 to 0.5 m.
The higher are the radiant gorse (Genista radiata), the English gorse (Genista anglica) and the German gorse (Genista germanica) - up to 0.8 m. The duration of flowering of these species ranges from 15 to 25 days. Dyeing gorse (Genista tinctoria) is a shrub up to 1.2 m high. Duration of flowering is 40 - 65 days. Blooms earlier than other types of gorse - in June-July.
Varieties and forms of gorse
Distinguish the following gorse shapes dyeing: with golden-orange "Royal Gold", pale red "Humilior" and large bright yellow flowers "Plena". There are varieties that differ in the form of growth: creeping "Prostata", compact "Golden Plate" and "Compacta" and dwarf "Anxantica".
The height of plants, depending on the species and variety, ranges from 0.2 to 1.2 m. Some species have thorns. Abundant flowering on low shoots of gorse resembles golden placers.
Flowers - bright yellow, whitish yellow, golden orange, pale red, collected in racemose inflorescences. The gorse blooms for 3 - 6 years of cultivation. The duration of flowering in different species ranges from 15 to 60 days (June - early August).
There are the following forms of gorse dyeing: with golden-orange "Royal Gold", pale red "Humilior" and large bright yellow flowers "Plena". There are varieties that differ in the form of growth: creeping "Prostata", compact "Golden Plate" and "Compacta" and dwarf "Anxantica".
The healing properties of ivy budra
The healing properties of ivy budra are concentrated in the aerial part of the plant, therefore, the raw materials are harvested during flowering, cutting off the tops of the stems at a height of 10 cm from the soil surface.
The cut stems are slightly dried in an open, sunny place, and then transferred to a shady ventilated place, where they are dried until tender, turning regularly. Dried budra ivy herb has a pungent, bitter taste. Medicinal raw materials are stored in glass jars for 12 months.
Due to its rich chemical composition, ivy budra has anti-inflammatory, choleretic, wound healing, anti-sclerotic, anti-cold and sugar-reducing effects. Therefore, the herb budra is used both herbal and independently for the treatment of bronchitis and pneumonia, gastritis and colitis, liver tumors (including liver cancer), kidney problems and sand (stones) in the gall and urinary bladders.
Ivy buddra is cut as a medicinal raw material. Photo: Michael Vertolli
In the latter case, with urolithiasis and cholelithiasis Ivy budra relieves pain and inflammation, promotes the discharge of sand and small stones up to 2 mm in diameter in a natural way. For this they prepare water infusion of budra (pour 1 teaspoon of dry grass with 250 ml of boiling water, put on low heat and simmer for a couple of minutes, leave for half an hour, and then strain through a sieve or a couple of layers of gauze). Take the infusion in equal portions throughout the day.
In general, traditional medicine prefers fresh ivy budra juice as a more active agent than a decoction, infusion or tincture.
Concentrated water infusion ivy budras or steamed, crushed, fresh grass is used outwardly, for the treatment of skin diseases (boils, purulent ulcers, dermatitis and dermatoses), for bone fractures and the praise of joints (arthritis). Steamed leaves or a richly moistened napkin are placed on a sore spot, covered with foil or waxed paper and carefully bandaged. The dressing should be changed twice a day.
Infusion for external use is prepared as follows: 1 tbsp. a spoonful of dry ivy budra herb is poured with a glass of boiling water, placed in a water bath in an enamel pan and steamed for 15 minutes, then the fire is turned off and insisted for 45 minutes without opening the lid. Then the infusion is filtered and the volume is brought to the original boiled water. If you need to take a bath, then dilute the strong infusion with boiled water three times.
For the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma and colds, as an expectorant, use a herbal mixture of ivy budra, European clefthoof and cocklebur. The herbal decoction is prepared as follows: take 1 tbsp. a spoonful of a mixture of herbs and pour boiling water, put on low heat and boil and then insist for half an hour without opening the lid of the pan. Take after meals, half a glass, 3 times a day.
As expectorant Budra is used in a mixture with European hoof and cocklebur. To prepare the broth, 1 tablespoon of the mixture is poured with 3 cups of hot water, boiled for 3 minutes and insisted for 30 minutes. Take% glass 3 times a day after meals.
For scabies treatment helps the tincture of fresh budra leaves in vinegar, rub the affected areas with it 2 times a day.
With lacrimation, make eye lotions from a decoction, which is insisted for a long time.
Ivy buddra: methods of application
The ivy bud can be used in many different ways, but the dosage and recipe for the preparation of drugs should be carefully observed! It should be remembered that the plant is poisonous and can cause significant damage.
- Broth of budra: 5 grams of dry budra herb per 200 ml of water (one teaspoon per glass of boiling water), take a spoonful 4 times a day. [one]
- Water infusion: 10 grams of dry raw materials per 200 ml of water to insist 8 hours to use spoonfuls 4 times a day. [one]
- Alcohol tincture: 15% (15 grams of herb per 100 ml of alcohol) take 15 drops 3 times a day. [one]
- Budra powder: a pinch once a day. [one]
- Herbal mixture No. 1: take leaves of ivy budra and poplar buds - two tbsp. spoons, leaves or flowers of black elderberry - 1 tbsp. spoon. Mix everything, brew boiling water in three glasses and drink in 5 doses during the day. To consume with pneumonia. 
- Herbal mixture No. 2: take ivy budra leaves, clefthoof root or leaves, cocklebur grass each, one tbsp. a spoonful of 3 cups of boiling water to drink, like the mixture of the first composition is used as an expectorant. 
- Budra for leukemia and liver cancer: Pour 1 teaspoon of chopped herbs with a glass of boiling water and steam in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes, insist for an hour at room temperature, drain. Take 1/4 cup of warm infusion once a day before meals. Prepare the tincture of Budra in a ratio of 1:10, insist in a dark place at room temperature for 10 days, shaking the contents periodically, strain, store in a dark place. Take drops 3 times a day, diluted with water. 
- Ivy budra with pharyngitis. Applied in the form of hot infusions: 1 tsp.l. the above-ground flowering part is poured with a glass of boiling water, insisted, filtered. Used for rinsing and inhalation. 
- A.P. Popov. Medicinal plants in folk medicine, 1960
- I.V. Kiyanov. God's pharmacy. Treatment with the gifts of nature. M., 2006
Contraindications: tendency to thrombosis, hepatic or renal failure, low acidity of gastric juice, children under 3 years of age, pregnancy and lactation. Remember, the plant is poisonous!
Criteria for the selection of tubs, containers for woody plants
Let's immediately define: by the general concept of a container, we mean containers of different shapes and volumes from different materials. There are so many of them now, and they all correspond to so different styles of dacha design that a separate post should be devoted to this topic. In this article, we will only highlight some important nuances.
The containers can be mobile (they are taken out and brought into the house, apartment), or they can be stationary, into which we insert a pot with a plant.
Reception "pot-in-pot" (pot-in-pot) is used when a simple container with a tub plant should decorate a ceremonial place. Thus, we hide the real container with the soil substrate and retain all the advantages of the plastic container. It is especially important to apply the (PnP) systems in the southern regions and to prevent overheating of the soil substrate in a limited volume of the container.
In addition, currently on sale there are so-called smart containers - this is the same "pot in a pot" system plus an automatic irrigation system (such containers are not cheap).
A prerequisite for the successful cultivation of woody plants in containers, tubs is the presence of one or more drainage holes. Containers with plants are installed so that water after irrigation and rain can flow freely from the drainage holes (it is better to put the tub on some kind of support - raise it above the ground, paving).
When choosing a suitable container volume, we are guided not only by the maximum plant size that it will reach in the near future, but also by the size of the root system.
Practical advice. Do not plant a small plant immediately in a large container, as you will face the problem of controlling watering: there will be a risk of very easily waterlogging, or vice versa - overdrying the soil substrate. Gradually, as the plant grows, transplant it into a larger pot in the spring.
Based on the above, the container should be:
- have a drainage hole
- do not overheat (PnP system)
- match the size of the tub plant
- fit into the overall style of the cottage design.
3 General floriculture and ornamental horticulture
General floriculture and ornamental horticulture
Purpose: to get acquainted with the morphological structure of ornamental plants, their industrial and scientific classification. Consider the role of environmental factors in the life of ornamental plants.
2. Classification of ornamental plants.
3. Fundamentals of botanical-systematic classification of plants.
4. The role of environmental factors in the life of ornamental plants.
In modern floriculture, a wide variety of species and varieties of ornamental plants are used, which differ from each other in biological, ecological, morphological and decorative features.
The external structure of plants is studied by a science called plant morphology. It helps to understand the vast world of plants, given their size, shape, color of leaves, flowers, fruits, introduces the structural features of stems, root systems, flowers and inflorescences, allows you to understand the biology of growth and development of individual flower crops, agricultural techniques for their reproduction and cultivation.
Higher flowering plants are composed of vegetative and generative organs. Vegetative includes roots, stems and leaves, which serve to support the individual life of the plant. Flowers are the generative organs. After pollination and fertilization, a fruit develops from the pistil of a flower with seeds inside.
The root is an underground organ of the plant. It serves to fix the plant in the soil and absorb water and dissolved minerals from it, synthesize organic compounds, and also to release some metabolic products. The main root develops from the embryonic root of the seed, and its branches form lateral roots. Adventitious roots are formed from stems and even leaves. They arise during hilling in many flowering plants in the lower part of the stem or on creeping stems of moneta loosestrife, Veronica officinalis, or are formed from the bottom of bulbous plants - tulip, hyacinth, daffodil. Thanks to the adventitious roots, it becomes practically possible for vegetative propagation of flowering plants (stem and leaf cuttings, layering and bulbs).
If the main root in ornamental plants is poorly developed or does not stand out at all in the mass of lateral or adventitious roots, then this type of root system is called fibrous. In some species of ornamental plants, it is more clearly developed, and then the root system is called pivotal.
In addition to adventitious roots, in many plants, adventitious buds are formed on the roots, which then develop into terrestrial shoots - root suckers or root shoots. Of the ornamental shrubs, these include lilacs, barberries, etc.
A number of ornamental plants have roots with special functions. Among them, the so-called retracting roots stand out, which, shortening greatly, pull bulbs (lilies, scilla), corms (crocus), rhizomes (iris, catchment) underground.
On the stems of some climbing lianas, adventitious roots develop, which, like suckers, attach to various natural supports (tree trunks, sheer rocks) and climb upward with their help. Ivy has such sucker roots.
The stem is a vegetative organ that represents the axis of the shoot and carries buds, leaves, flowers and fruits. Continuous movement of substances occurs along the conducting system of the stem. An ascending flow of water and mineral salts dissolved in it is carried out from the root to the leaves. In the opposite direction - from the leaves to the roots - there is a downward outflow of plastic substances formed in the process of photosynthesis.
The section of the stem where the leaf is attached is called a node, and the distance from node to node is called an internode. The apical bud is located at the top of the stem, and all the others are lateral. Shoots develop from vegetative buds, and flowers from generative buds.
By the nature of growth, the stems are divided into: creeping or creeping (periwinkle, sedum, purslane), curly and climbing (bindweed, hops, clematis), rosette - the lower part of the stem is greatly shortened and the leaves are crowded close to the ground (primrose, funkia, badan), erect (mallow, larkspur), spreading (gypsophila, aster).
In nature, various modifications of shoots are widespread, in which a supply of nutrients accumulates. Thanks to this, plants successfully endure adverse conditions of winter or summer drought and can reproduce.
A modified underground perennial shoot bearing buds, scaly leaves and adventitious roots is called a rhizome. The rhizome has the majority of perennial flowering plants - irises, lilies of the valley, canna, bellflower, rudbeckia, goldenrod.
A modified underground or, less often, an aerial shoot with a strongly shortened stem (bottom) and fleshy scaly leaves is called a bulb. Leaves-scales are scarious (tulip, daffodil and hyacinth) and tiled (in a lily, the scales overlap one another, like a tiled roof).
The thickened and greatly shortened underground part of the stem with scales or remnants of dead leaves is a corm. Outwardly, it looks like a bulb, but in structure it is closer to the tubers (crocus, gladiolus).
Thorns serve as a protective device of plants from being eaten by animals. They are subdivided into stem (hawthorn, gorse) and leafy (barberry). For attachment to various supports, plants have modified shoots - antennae (for example, in grapes).
The leaf is an organ of higher plants that performs the functions of photosynthesis, transpiration and gas exchange.
The leaf usually consists of a leaf blade and a petiole. Leaves in which the leaf blade does not have a petiole are called sessile, and leaves with petioles are called petiolate.
Some plant species at the base of the leaf have leaf-like outgrowths - stipules.
The color, shape and size of leaf blades in different plant species are not the same.
Leaves are divided into simple and complex. Simple ones consist of one plate, complex ones - from several. Complex leaves are trifoliate in shape (strawberry, oxalis), finger-like (lupine) and feathery (acacia, sweet peas). The attachment of leaves to the nodes can be: alternate or spiral (located singly), opposite (opposite each other) and whorled (three or more leaves depart from the node.
A flower is a shortened shoot with modified leaves, adapted for sexual reproduction and seed formation. In a flower, a receptacle, a perianth (calyx and corolla), stamens and a pistil are distinguished.
The perianth is located on the receptacle and can be simple - corolla (lily of the valley, tulip, hyacinth, lilies) or calyx (sorrel). In a double perianth, the outer green leaves are often called the calyx, and the inner ones, brightly colored, are called the corolla. The calyx protects the bud, and the corolla protects the stamens and pistils. The corolla can be divisible (the petals that form it have not grown together) and spliced (the petals have grown together). The corolla is often brightly colored to attract pollinators (insects and birds).
Flowers can be actinomorphic, zygomorphic and asymmetrical. Through an actinomorphic flower, you can draw several planes of symmetry (carnation, levkoy, primrose), and a zygomorphic one (sage, pansies, snapdragons). Plants with asymmetric flowers, through which no plane of symmetry (canna) can be drawn, are much less common.
Terry flowers are especially appreciated in floriculture. They are the result of long-term artificial selection and have a great decorative effect. From a biological and morphological point of view, terry is considered as an anomaly phenomenon that can occur as a result of the transformation of stamens into petals (poppy, rose), doubling the number of petals in plants with a simple corolla perianth (tulip, lily), splitting of petals (fuchsia).
Among ornamental plants, single flowers (poppy, tulip, peony) are relatively rare, more often they are collected several together and form various types of inflorescences.
Fruit - is an organ of flowering plants with seeds inside.
All varieties of fruits are divided into juicy and dry. The former include berries (grapes, lingonberries) and drupes (plums, cherries).
Dry fruits are openable and non-opening. The latter have only one seed. These include: walnut (hazel, oak), nut (highlander, anemone, liverwort), achene (sunflower, dahlias), weevil (cereals).
Dry opening fruits usually contain a lot of seeds (leaflet, bean, pod and pod). Leaflet - unilocular fruit, opening along the abdominal suture with one slit (catchment, larkspur, peony) bean - unilocular fruit, opening with two valves along the ventral and dorsal seam (peas, acacia) pod and pod - a two-celled fruit, opening with two falling leaves. The pod is more than four times as long as it is wide. With a smaller ratio, the fruit is referred to as a pod (levkoy, lunar, nocturnal).
All other types of dry opening fruits are a box (poppy, primrose, starfish).
The decorative features of plants include the size and habit, color, size, shape, number and location of flowers or inflorescences, leaves, length and strength of flowering shoots, size, color and shape of fruits, seeds, bulbs and corms. Economic and biological characteristics are due to: seed or vegetative reproductive ability, resistance of plants to damage by pests and diseases, to unfavorable weather and climate conditions, the timing of flowering, fruiting, etc. However, these signs can change depending on the weather conditions of individual years of age of plants, illumination and soil factors of agricultural cultivation, etc.