Proper home care for Meyer's lemon
Lemons in apartments on windowsills are no longer considered a rarity, but in order to grow this exotic fruit, you need to know all the features of care. Also it is very important to choose the right variety, which will delight not only in appearance, but also with tasty and juicy fruits. In this article, let's take a look at the Meyer lemon.
Characteristics of Meyer's homemade lemon
It's believed that Mayer's lemon or Chinese lemon is a hybrid of orange and lemon, created not in scientific laboratories, but by nature itself. This variety was discovered by the American Frank Mayer, who brought it from China to America in 1908.
Chinese lemon is the smallest among the representatives of this culture and that is why it is often grown at home. The variety has good frost resistance and yield., tolerates not the most favorable climatic conditions.
The maximum tree height reaches 1.5 meters, leaves are oval, saturated green color with a characteristic shine. The variety is remontant, that is, it blooms and bears fruit all year round, and in one season you can take several crops with a total weight of 2-3 kilograms. The first fruits can be removed only for 2-3 years of the tree's life.... The highest peak of flowering is observed in the spring, with the formation of white flowers, collected in bunches of 6-8 pieces.
The amount of the obtained crop directly depends on the quality of plant care.
From the moment the ovary is formed until the fruit is fully ripe, it takes 8-9 months. Lemons of the correct rounded shape can weigh from 70 to 150 grams, the skin is thin, bright yellow. The pulp is orange, sour with a slight bitterness; many tasters evaluate this taste as noble.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Mayer's lemon not afraid of cold temperatures and can grow in almost any climatic conditions;
- The tree itself has an excellent decorative appearance and can become a decoration in any room;
- The fruits are very beautiful and at the same time delicious, which cannot but please flower growers;
- Flowering and fruiting lasts constantlytherefore, with proper care, several crops can be harvested per season.
- Besides all the pluses, Chinese lemon has minuses such as the need for constant and high-quality care, in the absence of which the tree can quickly get sick and die;
- There is also a high risk the appearance of various insect pests;
- Fruit not suitable for long-term storage and long distance transportation.
Features of feeding
The plant especially needs feeding during the growing season. For this, experienced florists recommend once every 2 weeks from the beginning of spring to the end of autumn (while the lemon is actively blooming and bearing fruit) apply complex mineral fertilizerscontaining nitrogen, potassium or phosphorus.
At the same time, there is a little trick, following which you can improve the effectiveness of mineral fertilizers. To do this, once every 2-3 months, the soil is watered with a solution of boron, molybdenum, copper, zinc, manganese or iron.
For the winter period, feeding must be stopped.
Usually, ornamental plants are sold already in pots, but in order to create more comfortable conditions for him, it is necessary to transplant a lemon, while adhering to some rules.
The following potting soil works well for young plants:
- one piece of leafy land;
- one piece of sand;
- one part of humus;
- two parts of turf land.
For older lemons, the composition of the soil changes slightly:
- one piece of leafy land;
- one piece of sand;
- one part of humus;
- one piece of clay;
- three parts of turf land.
A neutral acidity level is preferable. When planting, you need to monitor the position of the root collar, it should be flush with the ground.
Until the lemon tree has grown to 5 years of age, it must be replanted annually., while renewing the soil and increasing the size of the previous pot by 4-5 centimeters. As soon as the plant becomes more mature, transplants are carried out once every three years, completely changing the soil mixture and replacing the pot if necessary.
In no case should a small plant be planted in a large container, in which case there is a great risk of decay of the root system.
Lemon tree care
So that the tree grows strong and healthy you need to take care of him properly, while creating as comfortable living conditions as possible, close to the region of natural growth of such a plant. There are several aspects to quality care.
In order for the plant to be able to fully bear fruit, it must be provided with intense sunlight throughout the year. The best option would be to create a 12 hour day, in such conditions the tree is actively growing foliage, but if the number of light hours decreases, then there is a risk that the lemon will lose all the green mass and simply die.
Florists recommend placing a pot with a plant on a western or eastern window sill, while artificial lighting is required in winter.
Mayer's lemon does not tolerate drafts and sudden changes in temperature very well, therefore it is not recommended to take the plant out to an unglazed and unheated balcony or on the street.
In the summer, it is important to avoid overheating, so in intense sunlight and a lot of heat, it is best to slightly shade the tree so that it receives the right amount of light, but does not burn from high temperatures. The ideal indicator is considered to be 20 degrees Celsius..
In winter, it is necessary to maintain the state of rest of the lemon tree; for this, the pot is transferred as far as possible from the batteries, trying to provide the plant with a comfortable temperature of no higher than 12 degrees.
For a comfortable existence plants are recommended to maintain indoor humidity at 70 percent.
Water the lemon tree with both root and foliar method. Simultaneously moisturizing the soil and spraying the foliage from a spray bottle. In the spring and summer, the procedure is repeated in the morning and in the evening every day; in the autumn and winter, the frequency of watering is reduced to 2 times a week.
The earthen ball should always be moist, drying out can lead to the death of the plant.
To form a beautiful crown of a tree, you need to take care of its pruning in advance, for this you need:
- Grown up the stem of the seedling is shortened to a length of 20 centimeters, while leaving several developed buds in the upper part;
- Grown from the remaining kidneys shoots will become skeletal branches, of which 3-4 are the healthiest, and the rest are cut off;
- Skeletal branches trimmed to a length of 25 centimeters;
- Shoots of the second order should be no more than 10 centimeters;
- Third order - more than 5 centimeters.
As soon as the shoots of the 4th order appear, the formation of the crown of the tree is considered complete... Now, every year in the spring, they carry out sanitary pruning, removing all diseased, yellowed, dried or damaged leaves.
Meyer's lemon can be propagated by seed or cuttings... It is worth noting that with the help of cuttings, you can get a good, varietal tree, and when growing a tree from a seed, there is a high risk of wild life.
- seeds are extracted from the fruit, thoroughly washed and dried on the windowsill;
- then need moisten gauze in water, put seeds on it and remove such a structure in a box, while constantly maintaining the moisture of the fabric;
- as soon as the first shoots appear, seeds are transplanted into the ground, adapted for young plants, while the seeds are deepened by 3-4 centimeters;
- seedlings are watered once every two days;
- as soon as the height of the tree reaches 15 centimeters, it transplanted into a large container.
As soon as the thickness of the trunk is more than 8 millimeters, it is recommended to inoculate by any of the known methods.
- stalk with 4-5 leaves placed in a weak solution of manganese for 20 hours;
- then an oblique cut is processed with a crushed corner, remove all castingsleaving only the top 3;
- to the bottom of the pot lay out drainage, then the soil mixture, on top of the sand, into which the plant is deepened by 2-3 centimeters;
- at the next stage cover the pot with a glass jar or a plastic bag;
- for the best rooting, the structure is placed in a place with diffused light and regularly moisten the soil;
- after 2-3 weeks, the shelter is slowly removed, first for 2 hours, then this time is increased. Carrying out such a manipulation is necessary so that the lemon can adapt to environmental conditions.
This method of reproduction will help to achieve the earliest fruiting of the plant.
Diseases and pests
Improper care can cause some diseases that can be identified by the following signs:
- If the leaves brighten, then this means that the tree lacks nutrients or light;
- If leaves begin to wither and fall off, then there is a lack of moisture and you need to immediately start watering and spraying the plant.
Also, lemon is often attacked by various pests..
- When a spider mite settles on a plant, he begins to build cobwebs and at the first detection of such a sign, the tree is washed under running water from the shower;
- If black dots appear on the leaves-turtles are scale insects, which will help get rid of a mixture of 50 milliliters of kerosene and 100 milliliters of liquid soap.
For the prevention of pests, twice a year, the plant is sprayed with a solution of 2 grams of karbofos, 2 grams of celtan and a liter of water.
Mayer's lemon is great for growing in an apartment as an ornamental variety, which also produce excellent-tasting fruits. Initially, it may seem that caring for such a plant is very difficult, but if you follow all the instructions correctly, you can get a good harvest and no diseases and pests will be scary.
Is it possible to grow lemon at home?
If you like to plant indoor plants, then we bring to your attention a lemon. This stunning plant will perfectly fit into any interior, and will delight you not only with its evergreen leaves, but also with its fruits. But before we begin to study the basic rules of caring for this amazing resident of the windowsill, let's find out where this tree came from.
Characteristics of the variety
Meyer's lemon is a hybrid variety - it withstands temperature changes and rarely gets sick, with the exception of viral diseases that can lead to the death of the crop.
Citrus bears fruit once a year. Fruiting occurs early. The tree has experienced several years of active growth, after which it begins to bloom and bear fruit. The optimal period for first fruiting is 5 or 6 years. The variety is early ripening, therefore, after flowering, no more than 8 months pass before the ripe fruit is obtained.
According to the characteristics of the Meyer lemon, it is suitable for home cultivation - it needs proper lighting and moisture, but otherwise the maintenance of the crop is minimal.
The disadvantages of the variety include the shape of the crown - the culture grows in the form of a bush, and not a tree, like other types of lemon varieties. To create the correct shape, pruning is carried out, especially in the first years of seedling growth. In winter, the tree completely or partially loses its foliage - this is a normal phenomenon due to slow processes in the rhizome. The variety differs in frost resistance: the tree can withstand air temperatures up to -10 ° C.
Description of the bush
In the open field, the tree grows up to 5 m, and at home, the maximum height of an adult bush is 2-3 m.
General characteristics of the bush:
- the shape of the crown is round and symmetrical
- has many side branches that grow rapidly
- has small thorns on old branches. They are located along the main trunk.
- small dark green leaves
- leaves are tough.
At home, the bush grows quickly - it tends to grow in breadth, and not upward, therefore, special control is needed for the growth of side branches. The foliage on the bush is evergreen, it does not change its color, and in adverse conditions it simply falls off. According to the description, the inflorescences grow in the form of clusters, small in size and white or light purple in color. The smell of the inflorescences is pleasant, unobtrusive. The ovary is formed on young branches, and less on old inflorescences.
Description of fruits
The fruits of the variety are round and do not grow large. The average weight of one fruit is 100-120 g. The peel of the fruit changes from yellow to orange - the longer the fruit hangs, the darker it is. The surface of the fruit is smooth and shiny, there are no tubercles familiar to citrus. Citrus remains on the branches for a long period and does not lose its taste. The fruits cannot be transported for a long time, otherwise they will lose their presentation.
According to the characteristic of Meyer lemon, the fruits of the variety have a specific taste - unlike other varieties, they taste more like oranges. The fruits are juicy. Lemon juice has a characteristic sourness.
Pros and cons of Meyer's lemon variety
The positive qualities of Meyer's lemon include:
- quick adaptation to new conditions of detention
- low temperature tolerance
- excellent decorative qualities
- high taste characteristics of the fruit
- year-round fruiting with a short dormant period
- several harvests a year.
The disadvantages of the variety include:
- the need for relatively complex and careful care
- high probability of disease due to mistakes in agricultural technology and care
- vulnerability to pests
- low keeping quality of fruits and short storage time.
How to propagate
Meyer's variety can be propagated by seeds and cuttings. The seed method does not guarantee the preservation of all varietal characteristics. You can get a lemon of the same type only by cuttings.
The seeds are removed from the ripe fruit and dried. Then they are sown in a moistened substrate or germinated on a damp cloth. The sprouts are watered, at first they are kept under a transparent flask. When the plant grows up to 15 centimeters, it is transplanted into a new pot.
For reproduction in this way, an apical stalk 7 centimeters long is taken. Its leaves are cut in half. The stalk is placed in a glass of water and Kornevin for a day, then planted in a moistened substrate. Cover the top of the sprout with a transparent flask.
Every day, the cutting needs to be ventilated and watered. Rooting takes place over 3-4 weeks.
Types and varieties of indoor lemon
The best varieties for home growing:
- Pavlovsky... One of the best indoor varieties. The tree is unpretentious, self-pollinated, tolerates poor lighting. Lemon grows up to two meters, bears fruit well - on average 20 fruits per season. An older plant is capable of producing up to 60 lemons. The fruits are characterized by an expressive odor and few seeds. The period of flower formation is the beginning of spring and autumn.
- Volcano... Dwarf tree - grows no more than one and a half meters tall, a hybrid of lemon and kumquat. A hardy plant that is not afraid of temperature fluctuations and low humidity. It is characterized by small fruits up to 4 cm in length, with a thin skin.
- Kiev large-fruited... An excellent option for growing in the middle lane - in the summer the plant can be taken outside, planted in a greenhouse. It is characterized by continuous flowering - the tree is capable of bearing fruit 4 times a year. The fruits are large, tasty, the leaves and flowers are large, very fragrant. For higher yields, the crown must be cut.
- Meyer's lemon... A dwarf variety, characterized by good productivity, small, very sour and juicy fruits. Demanding in care - needs frequent watering, top dressing. Reacts poorly to lack of light and changes in air temperature.
- Genoa... It is characterized by high-quality, medium-sized (about 100 g) fruits. Lemons are oval, bumpy, bright yellow or greenish. The pulp is tender, juicy, not too sour, the peel is edible, thick, poorly separated.
- Eureka... The variety is valued for its decorativeness - a beautiful broad-leaved crown and small fruits, often with a color reminiscent of a watermelon: striped, yellow-green. The pulp is an interesting pink color, very sour, but juicy.
The safest way to grow a tree of a suitable variety is to buy a seedling in a specialized store. More complex and time-consuming options are the grafting method, grafting and planting seeds.
Lemon pests and diseases
Even if you are an experienced grower and know perfectly well how to care for indoor lemon, it will not protect your plant from diseases and parasites caused by fungi and bacteria. Their appearance can be triggered by both infections and the excessive enthusiasm of the citrus owner with folk fertilization methods, such as tea decoctions and herbal infusions. These methods are permissible only as rare measures.
Appearing white flies may indicate stagnation. Their larvae feed on roots and cause significant damage to the plant. To combat them, insecticides of various types are used - irrigation solutions and aerosol forms for the destruction of insects that have managed to hatch. Karbofos and Aktelik are quite effective against these insects.
It is necessary to regularly look at lemon leaves, on which ticks and scale insects can settle. Outwardly, mites are like tiny spiders. They are given out by the color orange or brown, which stands out noticeably against the green background of the back of the leaves. They tighten the damaged areas with a thin cobweb, by which it is easy to recognize pests. Rinse the twigs and leaves on both sides at intervals of three to four days several times under a high pressure shower head. Multiple infusions are effective
- garlic (infuse 1 medium-sized head in 0.5 l of water),
- onions (1 onion, finely grated, poured with a liter of water),
- bay leaf (2-3 leaves per 0.5 liter can of water)
- strong infusion of green tea (for 2 cups of boiled water, 2 tablespoons of dry tea leaves).
Scabbards look like small brown turtles, motionless and tightly attached to leaves. It is difficult to deal with them. Three times at weekly intervals, wipe the plant, including leaves on both sides, twigs and trunk, thoroughly with a mixture of soap and kerosene, taken in a ratio of 1 / 0.5. Cover the ground with cardboard or polyethylene, wrap the trunk at the very bottom with a narrow bandage to prevent the penetration of liquid into the root system.
Lemons often "get sick" from improper care. Brownish leaves on an outwardly healthy plant, and even during the flowering period, is one of the ailments. In this case, reconsider the conditions for keeping the flower, it may make sense to transplant it. But in this case, choose a soil different from that at the present time. Perhaps it was the acidity of the soil that caused the disease.Video about pests of indoor lemon
As for the human body, disease prevention is important for citrus fruits. To prevent diseases, observe the regime, carry out transplantation, pruning of damaged areas. Sometimes a sudden illness can be dictated by the depletion of the plant itself. In this case, limit the flowering to a few buds, and remove the rest, no matter how sorry. Each house has its own separate microclimate, which is not always suitable for lemon. The task of the plant owner is to adapt it to existing conditions gradually.
Sometimes the process of caring for a lemon at home is comparable in terms of the hassle of caring for small children - it is difficult at the beginning, but all the work is rewarded when the tree begins to grow actively.