Elements of garden design, construction of stairs in rockeries, types and construction of retaining walls - 2
Garden design elements that help shape its appearance
Ladder construction technology in rockeries
One of the simplest ways to build a staircase in a rocky garden is dry masonry, which is equally applicable to retaining walls. Construction begins with the laying of the bottom step. All steps are based on foundations that ensure the stability of the entire structure and lie on a sand and gravel dump, which can only be neglected on sandy soils. The easiest way to masonry is when the next slab rests on the previous slab. The steps of such a staircase rise by 10-15 cm and are built in isolation at a distance of 5-10 cm from one another. Each of the slabs has its own foundation on a drainage pad. Earth is poured into the gaps between the steps and carpet plants are planted.
Types of retaining walls
Retaining walls are irreplaceable and multifunctional. They are good for planting miniature and rocky plants. For the stability of the structure, a foundation is made. The main purpose of retaining walls is to strengthen the soil on the slopes and slopes and to prevent landslides that often occur in areas located on the slopes. Unfortified slopes "float" almost constantly, even from light rain or melt water. With significant differences in the relief (more than 0.5 m), one cannot do without a retaining wall. The walls are placed for better use of the garden area if you want to emphasize the unevenness of the relief; they also make it possible to divide the site into functional and aesthetic zones.
There are infinitely many options for planning a plot with a relief. Even if the area is flat, the space can be visually divided with a low decorative wall. This is a good alternative to a live fence, especially if you don't like trimming your plants. Retaining walls are a very strong decorative element. They decorate the site and give it charm, create intrigue. Retaining walls made of natural stone look especially impressive next to decorative coniferous shrubs, ground cover and ampel flowers. It is good if a stream flows from the retaining wall or a rock garden is organized on the site in the form of rocky ledges.
The walls can serve as a frame for flower beds, they can be used to organize sites for plants or put flowerpots. Where there is not enough space, the wall will completely replace a bench for rest or a place at the entrance where you can sit. It is not difficult to build a retaining wall, you just need to choose the right material and develop a project in detail.
Brick walls they look good, and the brick weighs relatively little, but it is not so easy to lay it. Bricks are laid with bandaging, i.e. vertical seams in one row must not match seams in adjacent rows. A skilled bricklayer can decorate a wall using panels or stripes of a different pattern, using different masonry techniques. A brick wall can be faced with special tiles, natural or artificial stone.
Natural stone walls look very decorative. For this, you can use many types of stone: limestone, sandstone, flagstone, shale, granite, dolomite, boulders or river pebbles. Stones are taken of arbitrary size and shape and stacked one on top of the other so that they fit snugly against each other. Many gardeners prefer the so-called dry walls, when stones of different sizes are stacked on top of each other without using a solution, and the gaps between them are filled with earth and suitable plants are planted there. Many types of alpine flora can be planted there.
You can build a wall of concrete. It can be monolithic concrete (using wooden formwork). A metal mesh is shot against a concrete wall, and then revetted with natural or artificial stone. Wood can be used for dry retaining walls. Various types of wooden retaining walls: sheet piling, pile, fence are less durable.
Rock walls - crushed stone is poured into the base of such a wall or concrete is poured, the stones are laid without fastening them with a lime mortar. Between the stones, gaps 3-4 cm wide are left, which are filled with light dry fertile soil and plants are planted in them. The most suitable planting earth mixtures of the following composition: 2 parts of sod land, 1 part of peat, 1 part of coarse sand.
Rocky flower walls do not require special maintenance. If, during the construction of the wall, the stones are laid with a slight slope back, then rainwater can fall into the cracks. Occasionally, in the absence of rain, the plants are watered, fed 2-3 times a year with a weak solution of mineral fertilizers. Not far from such a stone wall, it is advisable to install a water spray or periodically spray the plants on hot, dry days. Only light should be in excess, therefore the walls are trying to orientate to the south, southeast or southwest.
Which one to prefer? What is best combined with the overall architectural appearance of the garden. Low walls (30-60 cm) are more suitable for a small garden, the bushes grow lush along them.
Retaining wall construction technology
These walls are easier to build than tall ones. The optimal height of the retaining wall is 1 m, usually it is erected without a foundation. The first row of stones is laid so that later they are only half visible from the ground. If the height is more than 1.5 m or the wall is being erected on loose soil, prone to movement, it is required to build a cushion of gravel or fine crushed stone with a thickness of at least 15 cm. The cushion is carefully tamped.
A retaining wall with a height of more than 1 meter is subjected to great pressure from the mass of the soil and water located behind it, and it must be built according to special rules. It is easier to equip the slope with terraces of several low walls. To prevent water from accumulating at the base of the wall, which can erode the foundation and the base of the structure, drainage is arranged. The outer side of the retaining wall is built with a slight backward slope, thereby increasing its stability.
It is better to refuse from excessively high and too long walls. Whatever you decorate them later, there will still be a feeling of heaviness. If, nevertheless, you cannot do without a long wall, try to "break" it with other architectural elements - benches, ladders, niches. And it may turn out that it is the retaining walls that will give your garden a unique look.
Brickwork retaining wall construction technology. Stones or slabs are laid in layers. If a slab is larger than the stones of the lower tier, it should be trimmed by adjusting the supporting stones dug under it. Each next row is laid with an indent from the previous one, then the wall is not vertical, but with a slope. After laying the next layer of stones, the earth is poured and compacted behind them. Sometimes drainage is necessary. A feature of dry masonry is the possibility of arranging places for planting plants in the walls. The stones are stacked on top of each other with a layer of earth, this technology not only allows you to plant plants, but also reduces the deformation effect in frost and heat.
Natural stone retaining wall construction technology by design it resembles buto-concrete, but it is carried out without formwork, which allows it to be given a wide variety of forms. The wall thickness depends on the height, for example, with a height of 1 m, the thickness should be 250 mm. The base is a monolithic unreinforced concrete foundation. It transfers the mass of the structure evenly to the ground and provides a clean and level masonry surface. As a rule, the foundation should be three times wider than the wall to be erected. The thickness of the concrete layer for a 1 m high wall is approximately 150 mm. The concrete is placed in a trench on a well-compacted gravel base 50 mm thick. The upper level of the foundation must be at least 150 mm below ground level.
Wall masonry resembles brickwork, it is also carried out in rows. For each row, stones of the same height should be selected; the inevitable irregularities are compensated for by filling in smaller fractions or by selecting the appropriate stones for the next row. In the lower part, it is also necessary to lay drainage pipes at a distance of 1 m from each other. This is best done after removing the masonry from the ground.
After completing the construction of the retaining wall (regardless of its material and shape), a general drainage is arranged from the side of the upper terrace, a layer of gravel 70–100 mm thick is poured between the wall and the ground. This is done at the same time as adding soil.
Leveled terraces should have a slight slope to ensure drainage. The soil level of the upper part should be slightly lower than the wall, since it will still be necessary to fill in the fertile layer removed before starting construction.
The ending follows
Sergey Tyunis, designer, Vitebsk
Garden stairs - options and manufacturing technology
- 1 How to know how many steps to make
- 2 Let's take care of safety
- 3 Recommendations for arrangement
- 4 Style and design
- 5 variants
- 5.1 Bulk version
- 5.2 Logs
- 5.3 Stone
- 6 Video: landscape design options on an uneven area
If you are the owner of an uneven suburban area, then some inconvenience may arise when moving along it. But this is not a problem, since such a geographical feature provides a wonderful opportunity to engage in landscape design, making it convenient to move around the territory, while simultaneously transforming the architectural and decorative appearance of the garden. On a gentle slope, you can pave a path, but steep climbs are more convenient to overcome by climbing a beautiful garden staircase.
If you are not sure if a gazebo is necessary or that it will successfully fit into the landscape of the site, start small: build a light tent. To do this, in the corners of the site you like, you need to place four concrete discs or slabs, which will serve as the foundation of the structure. In each of them, install a steel bar or tube made of aluminum or durable plastic, which are connected together at the top using a clamp or wire. This is how the arches for the canopy are formed.
Use a thick colored fabric, oilcloth or thick film as a cover. The material is first fixed in the center - a new clamp is put on over the connection of the arcs or a wire or twine is wound, but already through the roof fabric. Then the awning is pulled and tied to the supports, and so that the fabric does not slip through the pipes, the clamps are tightened in place of the ties. Around two or three racks from the ground to the awning, you can pull a mosquito net (as an option - a coarse mesh, along which to let climbing plants), leaving a place for the entrance.
Gazebo-tent: 1 - concrete slabs 2 - supports 3 - awning 4 - clamps 5 - mesh
Inside, you can put a rocking chair, a table and light plastic chairs, a cot for naps - anything for outdoor recreation. Such a design will successfully stand for the entire summer season, it will have to be disassembled only with the onset of cold weather, and then only by removing the fabric awning.
Retaining wall technology
If your plot is on a slope, consider yourself in luck: using the natural terrain of the area offers excellent opportunities for creating an effective garden layout. The main thing in this case is to correctly design the retaining walls. Almost any materials are suitable for them - from red brick and wild stone to monolithic concrete and wooden posts.
Before proceeding with the construction of the retaining wall, it is necessary to mark its location on the site. Most likely, it will divide the territory in half - into the lower and upper terraces (there can be two or three walls).
The shape of the retaining wall is preferable to choose a curved or broken line, since rectilinear ones are less strong, and besides, the curves look more beautiful. After the marking, the most difficult are coming - earthworks: to move part of the soil from the lower terrace to the upper one.
The surface fertile layer (about 0.25 m) must be preserved. Therefore, it is better to remove it and tilt it aside from the construction site in order to return it to its place after the construction of the retaining wall.
Further work depends on the design and material of the retaining wall.
The most affordable material is logs, the length and diameter of which depend on the difference in the level of the terraces: for example, if the height of the wall is up to 1 m, then the diameter of the logs should be at least 150 mm, and the length should be at least 1.5 m (1 m above the ground and 0.5 m in the ground).
The depth of the trench should be 50–100 mm more than the length of the dug-in part of the logs, and the width should be 200 mm more than their diameter. Since the wooden retaining wall is buried in the ground, it must be protected from soil moisture. For this, the logs should be covered with hot bitumen or burned.
The bottom of the trench should be covered in advance with a layer of gravel 50-100 mm thick and carefully tamped.
The logs are placed close to each other and strictly vertically. In order to temporarily fix them in this position, it is necessary to connect each log with the nails adjacent in the upper part (oblique bottom), and fill it with gravel from below. Finally, the trench is poured with M100 concrete.
And one more construction of a wooden retaining wall. Wooden posts are installed along the line of the future wall after 2-3 m. Grooves are made in them, into which logs or an antiseptic treated pod are placed horizontally.
After installing the retaining wall, waterproofing of roofing material or roofing felt from the side of the backfill is laid and the terrace is poured.
A retaining wall made of horizontal beams is less labor intensive than a vertical one and requires less material.
The retaining wall can be made of monolithic reinforced concrete and rubble concrete.
In this case, there is no need to dig a deep trench, since the monolithic structure is buried in the ground by about 150-200 mm.
Monolithic retaining walls are built using a formwork consisting of two walls, between which concrete is poured. First of all, install the wall located on the side of the lower terrace.
Read also Pond: what you need to know about the design
To obtain a flat front surface of the future retaining wall, the inner side of the formwork is sheathed with plywood or roofing felt.
If a reinforced concrete retaining wall is needed, reinforcement is installed between the formwork panels - metal nets, rods, pipe cuttings, connected with steel wire.
In the lower part, at a height of 50 mm from the ground level, to drain water from behind the wall, it is necessary to lay plastic drainage pipes, placing them every meter.
After completing all the preparatory work, the mold is poured with M100 concrete.
The completed retaining wall is kept in the formwork for about three days, after which the formwork is removed and without it, it is kept additionally, without loads, for about a month. A retaining wall made of natural stone looks very beautiful. Such a wall can be made without formwork, it can be given a variety of shapes.
The base is an unreinforced monolithic concrete foundation. Its width, as a rule, is three times the width of the wall. If the wall is 1 m high, the foundation will be 150 mm thick. The top of the foundation must be at least 150 mm below ground level.
The masonry of the retaining wall resembles a brick one. For each row, stones of approximately the same height are selected, the inevitable irregularities are eliminated either by filling the voids with smaller stones, or by selecting stones of the second row.
Drainage pipes must also be laid in the lower part.
The brick retaining wall looks especially advantageous if the house is also made of brick. The thickness of the wall depends on its height and the location of the brick.
A low wall in eight rows of brickwork (600 mm) can be built without fear with a thickness of half a brick. Higher ones can be strengthened with pilasters or erected in one and a half or two bricks. To determine the required number of bricks, you need to estimate the area of the masonry: for a wall half a brick per 1 m2, 62.2 pieces are needed, and 124.5 pieces for one brick.
If you already have bricks, use another calculation: 1000 pcs. are 16 m2 for a wall in half a brick or 8 m2 for a thickness of one brick.
Masonry mortar consists of 1 part cement, 3 parts fine sand and enough water that the mortar remains on the trowel when it is tilted, and then slides off entirely. To drain water into the seams, plastic pipes must be sealed. They are located with a slight slope towards the lower terrace.
Regardless of the material and shape of the retaining wall, general drainage is arranged from the side of the upper terrace: a layer of gravel 70-100 mm thick is poured between the wall and the ground. It serves as a loosening layer that allows water to pass well to the drainage holes.
The soil level of the upper part should be below the wall, since it will still be necessary to return the previously removed layer of fertile soil to its place.
Depending on the angle of inclination of the slope, the terraces can be of different widths - from half a meter to several meters, and if the slope is very steep, after setting up narrow terraces, it will look like a kind of staircase with steps.
With a slight slope of the site, several terraces of small height can be made. You can strengthen their edges with sod. But at the same time, one must remember: the soddy areas must subsequently be watered and constantly mowed so as not to litter the garden and the garden with seeds of wild grasses.
When forming terraces, one should try to make their surface not horizontal, but with a slight slope opposite to the slope.
It is not always possible to build capital retaining walls. To strengthen such a stepped terrace, you can use various durable materials: boards, metal pipes, strong mesh, broken construction reinforcement, stones.
It is better to plant gooseberries, raspberries, currants along the edges of the terrace, the powerful root system of which will firmly strengthen the terrace.
An inexpensive and low-labor-intensive wall can be made of slate. Defective slate is also suitable for these purposes. To keep it upright, use both ordinary stakes and reinforcing rods, set at a distance of 80-100 cm from each other.
When creating patios, bulk terraces, retaining walls, it becomes necessary to arrange small stairs in several steps.
The construction of the stairs and the material for their manufacture are different. The filling ladder in two or three steps is easy to manufacture. Planks, fixed with pegs driven into the ground, serve as formwork, and small slag with clay or crushed stone serves as the backfill material.
They begin to make a staircase with the preparation of an inclined base from soil (bottom layer) and coarse slag (top layer), which are leveled and carefully tamped. It is better to make the side (bowstring) of the ladder from a solid board.
The ladder is assembled in advance, firmly knocking down the bowstring with the risers with nails, then set it on the prepared base and secured with pegs. First, the soil is poured to the outside of the bowstring and tamped, then the steps are poured, starting from the bottom.
Each step is carefully tamped, pre-moistened slightly with water.
A ladder made of ready-made concrete blocks is laid on caked soil, having previously cut out places in it with a shovel to match the size of the blocks. If the soil is bulk, first make a base of rubble stone and put the steps on the mortar.
A decorative hemp staircase is quite durable. It looks especially beautiful in combination with a retaining wall made of wood. The dies, sawn from the butt parts of the trunks, are laid on a previously prepared base. Their upper ends are treated with an antiseptic, and the lower ends are treated with an antiseptic and tar or bitumen.
Varieties of stone: main features
To decorate the site around a country house, designers propose to combine four natural elements - earth, water, wood (living plants) and stone. Decorative stones for landscape design are selected taking into account the appearance of the main structure.
Garden styles using stone decor:
- Japanese minimalism (rock garden)
The chosen style dictates the use of a particular material. Wild stone differs in the degree of strength (granite possesses greater), dimension, color scale, ease of processing. The artificial material is what the customer wants it to be. Special additives increase strength, expand the color palette, create structure, increase dirt and moisture repellent properties, and regulate weight. In addition, concrete stones can be made by hand using garden path molds.
What you shouldn't forget
The choice of material, the realization of one's own fantasies is the prerogative of the owner of the suburban area. The main thing when using stone in landscape design is its appropriateness, compliance with the chosen architectural style, as well as the size of the property. Marble Hercules on 6 acres with a wooden house will cause confusion, a miniature alpine slide will look strange among the ship's pines. But a high-quality object that corresponds to the general concept will delight the eye every day.
PROXIMA - Construction company
When designing a future garden, first of all, they mark the relief of the site. Often sites are located on slopes, ravine slopes, on river banks. Often, after construction work, an artificial relief is formed on the site. The layout of such a garden will require the arrangement of horizontal surfaces for planting, but full leveling of the surface is impractical, therefore, the terracing method is used. Terracing of a site is the formation of horizontal ledges (terraces), reinforced with retaining walls. This design solution will help protect the land from soil erosion, and retaining walls will prevent soil erosion.
Retaining walls serve both practical and decorative purposes. On an area with a slope or difficult terrain, they allow terracing; on a flat surface, low retaining walls can highlight a part of a raised garden. This will give the site a peculiar relief and volume and make it visually more interesting. The choice of material, configuration and dimensions of the retaining wall depend on the concept of the garden.
Retaining wall structures can be different and depend most of all on the height of the terrace. The most common design solutions for retaining walls are: concrete with natural stone or tile cladding, stone, laid out with flagstone.
By design, retaining walls are subdivided into massive and thin-walled.
In massive retaining walls, their resistance to shear and overturning under the influence of horizontal soil pressure is provided mainly by the wall's own weight.
In thin-walled retaining walls, their stability is ensured by the wall's own weight and the weight of the soil involved in the work of the wall structure.
As a rule, massive retaining walls are more material-intensive and more labor-intensive during construction than thin-walled ones, and can be used with an appropriate feasibility study (for example, when they were erected from local materials, the absence of precast reinforced concrete, etc.) (Fig. 1 ).
Massive retaining walls differ from each other in the shape of the transverse profile and material (concrete, rubble concrete, etc.)
Necessarily the device of foundations from rubble or stone. For a retaining wall, the height of which does not exceed 60 cm, a crushed stone pillow 20-30 cm thick is sufficient. If the wall is higher than 1 m, the depth of the foundation must be at least 70 cm, otherwise cracks and other structural deformations are inevitable. Walls with a concrete base can be up to 3 m high, but require reinforcement, which increases the strength of the structure.
- - supporting wall
- - Tefond "DRAIN PLUS"
- - nail
- - protective profile
- - gravel (crushed stone) with a fraction of 3-25 mm
- - drainage pipe
- - natural bedding soil
- - backfilling with drainage soil (sandy or coarse)
- - drainage ditch.
The decorativeness of the retaining walls is given by cladding with various materials, including: decorative bricks, natural stone, decorative concrete blocks and wooden beams. If you use materials with a beautiful front surface for the construction of a retaining wall (for example, facing bricks or decorative concrete blocks), then you can save on facing.
All materials are bonded to cement mortar. However, there is a method of performing a retaining wall using the dry masonry method, when the stones are tightly laid without using cement mortar. This method is more time consuming and requires careful selection of stones and skilled placement. Such a wall allows perennial plants to be planted in the seams between stones, they are often sealed with soil with seeds that germinate in the right place. A hooded wall is a rarity in our gardens, the climate with a long rainy autumn-winter season and spring floods does not allow dry walls to remain decorative for a long time. Slate, sandstone, slab limestone, granite or gneiss are most suitable for the construction of a dry wall.
It is more profitable to build walls using cement mortar, and if it is necessary to decorate the seams with plants, then the easiest way is to leave niches in the wall made of cement and fill them with soil with seeds of annual ampelous plants, such as nasturtium, petunia, surfiniya, lobelia, sweet peas or tobacco.
Do not forget that it is more convenient to go down from the terrace to the terrace by the stairs, which should be taken care of during construction. The stairs in the garden should be flat, the height of the step can be a maximum of 10 cm, and the width - at least 30 cm.
Ornamental plantings, lawns, gravel gardens, rockeries, ponds, vegetable gardens and even orchards are placed on the terraces. Long grassy slopes are very decorative. However, it should be borne in mind that in order to avoid erosion of the base of the lawn, it is necessary to strengthen the slopes with a plastic or coarse-mesh concrete mesh. When creating walls, the most important condition is orientation to the sunny side, otherwise a strong shadow from the vertical wall will lead to stretching of the plants, discoloration and weak flowering.
Brick walls they look good, and the brick weighs relatively little, but it is not so easy to lay it. Bricks are laid with bandaging, i.e. vertical seams in the same row should not coincide with seams in adjacent lower lower rows. A skilled bricklayer can decorate a wall by laying out panels or stripes of a different pattern, using different masonry methods. A brick wall can be faced with special tiles, natural or artificial stone.
Natural stone walls look very decorative. For this, you can use many types of stone - limestone, sandstone, flagstone, shale, granite, gneiss, porphyry, dolomite, boulders or river pebbles, and others. Stones are taken of arbitrary size and shape and stacked one on top of the other so that they fit snugly against each other. Many gardeners prefer the so-called dry walls, when stones of different sizes are stacked on top of each other without using a solution, and the gaps between them are filled with earth and suitable plants are planted there. Many types of alpine flora can be planted this way.
Concrete retaining wall... It can be monolithic concrete (using wooden formwork). A metal mesh is shot against a concrete wall, and then revetted with natural or artificial stone. The use of concrete blocks allows not only to reduce the cost, but also facilitates the construction of the wall on your own. They are produced in a wide range of colors, sizes and patterns. There are also concrete blocks with through holes, cast in various patterns. They are used for wall-screens and are laid one on top of the other without bandaging the vertical seams.
Wooden retaining wallsWood can be used for dry retaining walls. Different kinds wooden retaining walls: sheet pile, pile, fence, cage and others are less durable, although from the point of view of modern landscape design, they are the most attractive. Wooden beams or peat blocks are out of place in a small, regular garden, but very good in a park or natural, semi-wild garden.
Also used in the construction of walls artificial stone blocks. In the production of these blocks, instead of the usual filler, stone chips are added to the concrete. The surface ranges from nearly smooth to roughly hewn. Artificial blocks are suitable not only for fencing and retaining walls, but also for benches, open hearths - barbecues, plant containers, pergolas, etc.
You can also collect broken bricks, lay them in a recess, fix them with cement mortar, and then revet them with wood with a beautiful texture. Such a wooden wall will look even better if you plant something from conifers, such as juniper, next to it. Retaining walls are even made from empty wood and wire boxes or metal mesh. The box is installed in one or more tiers filled with sandy or large-block soil. Depending on the overall style of the home and garden, elements of retaining walls can include ceramics, pebbles and shells, wooden elements (beams).
What the profile of the retaining wall should be is a matter of taste. The market offers many different wall supports for almost all occasions. Profiles can be broken, stepped, angular, rectangular, diamond-shaped, ribbed, with inclined edges, etc.
Which one to prefer? Something that matches the overall architectural appearance of the garden. In the event that the design of the retaining wall has to be calculated, then the design features of this engineering structure, as a rule, affect the choice of material.
Low walls (30-60 cm) are more suitable for a small garden, and the bushes grow lush along them. These walls are easier to build than tall ones.
The optimal height of the retaining wall is 1 m, it is usually erected without a foundation. The first row is laid so that later they are only half visible from the ground. If the height is more than 1.5 m or the wall is being erected on loose soil prone to movement, it is required to build a cushion of gravel or fine crushed stone with a layer of at least 15 cm thick. The cushion is carefully tamped. A retaining wall with a height of more than 1 meter is subjected to great pressure from the mass of the soil and water located behind it, and it must be built according to special rules. It is easier to equip the slope with terraces of several low walls. To prevent water from accumulating at the base of the wall, which can erode the foundation and the base of the structure, drainage is arranged. The outer side of the retaining wall is built with a slight backward slope, thereby increasing its stability.
It is better to refuse excessively high and too long walls - no matter how you decorate them later, there will still be a feeling of heaviness.If, nevertheless, you cannot do without a long wall, try to "break" it with other architectural elements, for example, benches, stairs, niches, flower beds, it may turn out that the walls will give your garden a unique look, say the professionals
Each garden plot is individual in size, shape and relief on which it is located. If the site has a pronounced relief, this allows you to make a vertical layout, i.e. divide the site into horizontal levels and secure them with retaining walls. You can also plan the relief on the site using slopes - inclined planes with a lawn growing on them and only in some places emphasize the relief with retaining walls.
Retaining walls are a very strong decorative element. They not only decorate the site, but also give it interest and originality. Retaining walls made of natural stone next to coniferous shrubs and ground cover plants look especially impressive. It is good if a trickle flows from the retaining wall or a rock garden will be organized in the form of rocky ledges on the site. Then the site will be "solid", i.e. solved in one style. There are many options for planning a plot with a relief, but even if your plot is as flat as glass, then the space can be visually divided using a low decorative wall. This is a good alternative to hedges, especially if you don't like trimming. The walls can serve as a frame for flower beds, they can be used to organize sites for plants or put flowerpots. Many gardens have at least one place where you need to go down or up from one level to another - for example, when crossing from path to patio or from lawn to driveway. In such cases, stairs are arranged.
If the site is on a terrain, then you will need several stairs. Some of them can be replaced with inclined ramps, which is very convenient if children are running around on the site or if you have to transport a heavy lawn mower from one level to another. However, the ramps should not be steep because can be slippery in winter.
Retaining walls are one of the most important multifunctional architectural and planning elements of landscape design. The main function of the retaining walls is to strengthen the soil on slopes and slopes. Areas with difficult terrain, where there are elevation differences of more than 50 cm, need terracing for optimal use of the land, creating conditions for the normal growth of cultivated plants. The most reliable way to strengthen terraces is to build retaining walls.