How to grow carrots: sowing, thinning, watering, feeding
What does a red girl with a braid on the street need?
Why do gardeners love carrots so much? They have six hundred square meters, on which there is a house, and a bathhouse, and a barn, and a well, and apple trees, plums, pears, and all berries, local and exotic, and a sea of flowers ... How much land is left for vegetables?
On such a piece of land, crop rotation is simply not feasible. At the same time, one cannot do without crop alternation, otherwise diseases and pests will get out, and these are unnecessary problems.
For gardeners, and I distinguish gardeners from gardeners living in the village, it is easier to observe crop rotation, since they were given not six acres of land, but several times more. The villages were located on areas where the soil was originally "real" by nature, and the gardener took away mostly inconveniences under their weave, for example, swamps or swampy areas, where the soil layer was generally no more than 5-10 cm. Gardeners the soil in their areas created for years. And all the same, it had to be constantly "maintained" at the required level so that fertility would not decrease.
To grow beautiful, smooth, high carotene carrot, it is necessary to work on the garden in the fall. This crop grows well on loose, breathable soil with a high humus content and with an acidity of pH 5.5-6.0 or 6.5. Professor V. A. Borisov believes that soil with a pH of 6.0-7.1 is suitable for carrots, the humus content is at least 2%, the thickness of the humus layer is at least 35-40 cm, and the groundwater level is not higher than 1 meter.
In my area, the water is not at a depth of 1.5 shovel bayonets. So I have no right to claim the highest yield of a beautiful carrot, but such a carrot is also suitable.
Manure is usually applied under the predecessor crop. But in this case it is difficult to advise something, because it is not known: how much manure was introduced under the previous crop, how much it has already "eaten" nutrients, how much is left for carrots. According to standard norms, I can advise: in the fall, carry out a deep digging, you can use one shovel bayonet, or one and a half. It depends on the type of carrot. There are varieties with a root crop length of 10-14 cm, and there are those that grow up to 20-25 cm.
Maybe someone paid attention to how carrots are grown in the fields of the Leningrad Region. Narrow high ridges are made, the grooves between them are deep, knee-deep to an adult. We used to go to sponsored state farms to weed carrot crops and harvest. When we were weeding, we were always surprised: is it possible that something will grow out of these sprout threads? And then they came to the state farm for harvesting and were surprised again: what a beautiful, bright, large carrot had grown! There were very rainy seasons, when the water from the furrows did not have time to leave, then even tractors were stuck, which transported boxes of carrots on trailers. But the roots were beautiful even then. And there were seasons - not a single rain. And no one has ever watered the fields with carrots.
It's just that the agronomists will sow on time, the seeds will fall into the moist soil, and during weeding, we put the weeds in the furrows. And they also retained moisture. I brought this example so that gardeners do not refer to the bad weather, which, they say, led to a poor harvest of carrots. You can do without watering. The main thing is to create a loose, breathable ridge of carrots, and it will get moisture from the soil itself.
It is advisable to fill the sand bed as follows: for 1 m², add two buckets of sod land, two buckets of peat compost, 1 bucket of humus, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of superphosphate, 2 tbsp. spoons of azofoska.
We will fill the garden bed on clay, podzolic soil differently: add 1-2 buckets of sand, 1-2 buckets of peat compost, 1 bucket of humus, 0.5 buckets of old sawdust, 1 tbsp. spoons of azofoska.
In a garden bed, where already depleted peat is the basis, add 0.5 buckets of coarse sand, 1 bucket of humus, 1 bucket of sod land, 1 tbsp. spoon of urea, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of superphosphate, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of potassium sulfate.
To fulfill all the soil requirements of carrots, you will have to work thoroughly. If you do not have the strength to dig deep into the garden, then do not grow varieties with a long root crop. There is no strength or opportunity to improve the bed with sand, peat - in this case, add more humus. No humus - add more compost.
I put only humus and mineral fertilizers under the carrots, because I think that my soil doesn't need anything else. For gardeners who have good, fertile and light soil, easier. They brought manure under the previous crop, and in the spring they will add humus to the garden bed - and everything is ready for sowing carrots. For example, 40 years ago, when we lived in Rostov-on-Don, we had a garden plot where the humus layer reached one meter! There I just watered the carrots in the garden. At that time from fertilizers for gardeners there was only "Riga mix", and it was brought in for digging. The carrots grew excellent, but only with watering, because the weather is hot there.
I remembered my former garden plot, and one funny incident related to carrots immediately came to my mind. On the site lived hedgehogs, periodically with me a weasel dropped into the barn, and sometimes I saw how it jumped back. The garden and hares also visited. They turned out to be a rather arrogant "people". On the veranda, open on all sides, there was a large round table covered with oilcloth, around the table were wide benches.
Once I came to the site, and a large hare was sitting on a bench at the table. I began to reprimand him that I was already tired of wiping the dirt off the table. He twisted his head for a long time, his eyes goggled, as if petrified. I had to swing a broom at him. Probably, he was waiting for a girlfriend, but I showed up at the wrong time. By the fall, I noticed that my carrot tops began to disappear. And it was too early to harvest. The tops looked like they had been cut by someone. I thought maybe it was the rats that hurt. By that time, the tops were no longer in a third of the beds.
Once I worked as a rake near a carrot bed. And when she straightened up and leaned against the rake, she saw a hare sitting on a bed under an Isabella vine. He sits, looks at me and does not move. I began to reprimand him, they say, now I understand who is eating carrot tops. And he calmly sits and looks at me point-blank, as hypnotizing. I called him arrogant because he was clearly waiting for me to leave the carrot garden to continue his work. I promised him that I would now water the carrots, and early in the morning I would harvest the entire crop of root crops, and leave the tops to him. In fairy tales they write that hares pull the carrots themselves from the soil. And in mine, unlike the fairy tale, not a single carrot was gnawed, although its tops were visible from the soil. Okay, a little distracted, now to the point. So,
Carrots are considered a tug-like crop. Therefore, gardeners use various techniques to accelerate seed germination. The seeds are soaked for one day or washed under the tap, some extend this procedure up to two days. Then the seeds need to be placed in the refrigerator for 2-5 days. Or you can bury it in cold soil to the depth of a shovel bayonet 10-12 days before sowing. And on the day of sowing, you need to get them out of the soil, dry them for 20-25 minutes and sow.
They say that such seeds sprout on the 4th-5th day. I have not used any of these methods of preparing seeds for sowing, so I can not confidently recommend any of them. I do not process carrot seeds in any way, I sow them directly into the garden. But the soil at this time is still cold, that is, I sow, as the people say, into the "mud". In our area, this happens at the end of April - in the first days of May.
My garden bed has already been prepared since autumn, but in the spring I dig it with a pitchfork, level the soil and make grooves 1.5-2 cm deep. I pour superphosphate there - 1 teaspoon per two running meters of the furrow and sow carrot seeds. If the top layer of the soil is a little dry, then I spill the groove with water and immediately sprinkle the seeds. Then I sprinkle the groove with loose soil (without lumps), mulch the entire bed with humus, tightly cover it with a film. After 10-15 days, the carrots begin to sprout, then I immediately remove the film. If you first cover the crops with lutrasil, then the soil under it dries out quickly, and the seeds really need moisture for germination.
I will not name the varieties that I sow in my beds - everyone should choose them for their soil, now there is such a large assortment of them. I do not name them, not because I keep them a secret, but because there have been cases: I will recommend varieties that give me a good harvest, and the gardeners then complain that they did not succeed. So, by trial and error, look for your varieties and hybrids, including carrots.
Seeds begin to germinate at a soil temperature of + 4 ... + 5 ° C. At a temperature of + 16 ... + 18 ° C, seedlings appear in two weeks, and at a temperature of + 20 ° C, seedlings will sprout in 8-10 days. All this is conditional, since much depends on the quality and strength of the seeds, on the presence of moisture in the soil ... The optimum temperature for active growth of carrots is + 20 ... 25 ° C.
Someone invented the timing of sowing carrots for winter storage of root crops. They provide for sowing seeds in the last days of June and the first decade of July. For our zone (60th parallel), these terms are not suitable. Suppose the selected variety has a growing season of 130 days. We believe that it will rise on July 15. This means that it will grow in July 15 days, in August 30 days, in September 30 days. In total, only 75 days are allotted for her. They say that even throughout October you can keep carrots in the garden. But in October, the soil temperature is already 10 ° С, and carrots need + 20 ... 25 ° С. And if this variety is still with a growing season of 180 days ?! Read the description of the variety on the bags and think about how long your variety needs.
I do not use such sowing times, because I know that nothing will come of it. But the neighbor tried to sow at such a time. And then all the neighbors laughed: the early sowing period of carrots turned out to be excellent, but the late one - one little thing grew. She asked me to come up with something to improve the harvest, but what can you think of if the soil temperature was no longer above + 10oС, and even colder at night. Even if we sow seeds on June 1, then the earliest varieties will not have time to ripen.
Or another case: I decided on April 28 to sow a hybrid of carrots with long, large roots. But its growing season is 180 days. That means they will rise on May 10. Carrots will vegetate until the end of September 144 days, but this hybrid needs 180 days to fully ripen. At first glance, my carrots have grown large, solid. But I knew that - during storage, it will begin to germinate quickly. If you also grow such carrots, then put them separately and use them first of all: for winter preparations, for example, pies with carrots, cheesecakes are also good. Now, planning a new season, I decided: I will try to sow carrots on April 30th.
The distance between root crops after thinning: for early distillation 3 cm, between rows 20 cm, for autumn harvesting 6 cm, between rows - 20-25 cm.I sometimes grow early varieties with a row spacing of 10 cm, but I remove one row completely when carrots will grow from a little finger. These root crops will be used for culinary purposes - do not go to St. Petersburg for carrots from near Vyborg if nothing is left of last year's harvest.
For many years, for an early harvest, I sowed carrots in a greenhouse near tomatoes in one row. I sowed the seeds as soon as I dig up the ridge in the greenhouse, fill it with everything I need. This row helped out great in the summer. But one day some rodent - a shrew or a rat ate almost all the roots, leaving only the tops of the roots and wilted tops. I don't sow carrots in the greenhouse anymore.
If you carefully prepared the ridge, sowed the seeds on time, the carrots sprouted together, but you did not thin out the seedlings, you will still get tails instead of normal root crops. Experts recommend carrying out the first thinning after the appearance of the first true leaf. I want to say that there will be no big trouble if you thin out the seedlings even after the appearance of the second leaf. This is exactly what I do - I thin out after the formation of the second leaf. Some gardeners in winter calmly "sow" carrot seeds with a paste on a tape of toilet paper. Then you will not have to thin out the crops. The disadvantage of this technology is that, it happens, not all seeds germinate, then gaps appear in the rows.
The second and final thinning I do at a time when the pinky-sized root crop has already formed. I noticed that the best harvest is obtained when I thin out only once: I immediately leave the distance between the plants 6 cm, and the row spacing - 20 cm.
All summer, the carrots in my garden are covered with lutrasil. As soon as shoots appear, I remove the film from the ridge and cover the carrots with lutrasil so that it does not interfere with the growth of the carrot tops. Rain moisture or moisture after watering with a watering can easily penetrates through the covering material. Then the lutrasil dries easily, the wind flutters it. Under such a shelter, there is no crust on the soil, and most importantly, the plants are not damaged. aphids, leaf beetle, carrot fly. Loosening under lutrasil is not required. But when I thin out the seedlings, I immediately loosen the soil.
I don't water the carrots on purpose. But if you still need to water, if, say, the soil is very dry, then water deeply - up to 30 cm deep, this will require about 30 liters per 1 m². If you water it often, but shallowly, then the root crops turn out to be ugly, growing in breadth with the roots. With excessive watering, the tops and core grow strongly.
I feed the carrots once with potassium sulfate immediately after the second thinning, around the second half of June. You can look at the fertilizer rate on the seed bag, as there are scientists' developments on what carrots need on different types of soil. But everywhere with such feeding, potassium in them should be three to six times more than nitrogen. Many gardeners use Uniflor fertilizer.
According to the tables of V.N. Molodtsov, carrots need to be fed eight times per season. But there is a fertilizer rate per 1 kg of products, half of it needs to be applied during sowing, and the rest should be divided into top dressing. Maybe they do this in large fields, so in stores the carrots are long, even, beautiful and almost completely without a core. I think it was grown correctly, since if it were with nitrates, it would not have been stored for a long time.
Branching is such a development of a root crop when it stops growing in depth, but grows in breadth, forming several roots. The result is an ugly carrot. The reasons for this: you have applied manure for planting; thinned crops, in which the plant has a large feeding area; drought; shallow watering; shallow digging of the soil; clay soils. I want to note that on clay soils, varieties with conical root crops such as the Shantane variety and worse are obtained, i.e. more branching, cultivars with cylindrical roots.
Carrots are appreciated for their high carotene content. It was found that the synthesis of carotene in fruits is better at an air temperature of + 15 ... + 21 ° C. Scientists have found that carotene in carrot roots is in the form of alpha, beta and gamma isomers of carbohydrates. Beta isomers are of the greatest value. The presence of carotene is associated with the intensity of the color of the root crop: red has more beta-carotene, orange - more alpha-carotene.
When the alpha-carotene content is low, roots acquire a bitter taste during storage. This flavor is sometimes acquired by carrots grown on sandy soil.
Sometimes yellow roots come across. This means that carrot seeds turned out to be such. Our breeders used to create varieties in central Russia with a high carotene content and a small core.But after the collapse of the state farms, seed production was transferred to the southern regions in order to receive seeds there in one season in a direct culture. And there are a lot of wild carrots, so sometimes we get yellow roots from cross-pollination with them. These are not Asian varieties, as some say, this is a violation of seed technology.
During heat treatment, scientists believe, carotene is destroyed by half. I do not understand why half, and not all? But this is not scary: we have learned to grow such varieties of pepper, where the carotene content is higher than that of carrots, so don't worry - we'll just eat more pepper - that's the solution to the problem.
After heat treatment, carotene and other vitamins are lost. And trace elements remain. Why are they forgotten? We need them just like vitamins. And carrots contain iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, lycopene, bioflavonoids, vitamin C, beta-carotene, biotin, folic acid. So grow carrots in your beds and eat them for health! Have a good harvest in the new season!
Luiza Klimtseva, experienced gardener
Photo by Olga Rubtsova
Usually summer residents do not study carrot varieties much. At best, they pay attention to the shape of the root crop, yield and ability to be stored for a long time. In fact, each variety has its own purpose.
In such carrots, root crops are not expected to fully ripen. They are pulled out of the garden during the summer and eaten immediately. As a rule, these are the earliest varieties and can be harvested from the end of June.
Varieties and hybrids: Chantenay royal, Chantenay Royal, Concerto F1, Lydia F1, Mars, Nelly F1, Yaroslavna, Maestro F1, Nantes red.
Grated carrots, yes with sour cream, yes with garlic ... What could be tastier and healthier? So there are varieties designed just for these cases. It can be both early carrots and late ones, which will be stored in the cellar, but they all have one important quality - root crops are resistant to greening. After all, it is known that their top always rises above the ground and it turns green in the sun. And this part gets bitter. You can, of course, cut off the "ass" and discard, but this way you will lose part of the harvest.
Varieties and hybrids: Chantane 5, Bolero F1, Napoli F1, Red Cor.
Housewives know from experience that not every carrot can produce a lot of a healthy drink. There are varieties in which there is a large amount of dry matter and little liquid. And we need just others - juicy, crispy, high in carotene.
Varieties and hybrids: Bolero F1, Squirrel F1, Maestro F1.
Here juiciness is just not needed, it is important that the carrots lie in the refrigerator for a long time, or even just in the kitchen. There is a lot of dry matter in such varieties, so they do not rot for a long time.
Varieties and hybrids: Berlicum Royal, Dolyanka, Cardinal, Chinese Beauty, Malika, Nantes improved, Samson, Forto, Boltex F1, Veronica F1, Crown F1, Kuroda F1, Shantane F1, Natalia F1, Princess F1, Romance F1, Holiday F1.
Mid-season and late varieties of carrots lie in the cellar without any problems and for a relatively long time. They also have a lot of dry matter, so they are stored longer than others.
Varieties and hybrids: Gribovchanin F1, Monanta, Canada F1, Magno F1,, Nantes 4, Incomparable, Nevis F1, Nerac F1, Rosal, Samson, Typhoon, Moscow winter A 515, Anastasia F1.
There are also varieties that combine several qualities at once: they are sweet, juicy, vitamin-rich and are quite tolerably stored. So if you don't have any special preferences, you can sow them.
Varieties and hybrids: Red giant, Angara, Major F1.
For gourmets and supporters of healthy lifestyle
Colored varieties of carrots are becoming very popular: yellow, white, red, purple, black and two-color. They are very beautiful, but it's not just about their appearance.
Yellow carrots are better for pilaf.
Purple and black varieties contain massive amounts of antioxidants that slow down aging.
Red contains lycopene, the same as in tomatoes - this is a good prevention of cancer.
White is ideal for those who are allergic to coloring pigments.
Varieties and hybrids: Cosmic Violet, Purple Elixir F1, Purple Queen F1 - with purple skin. White satin F1 and Snow White are completely white. Yellowstone and Yellow are yellow. Atomic Red is completely red, both inside and out. Pineapple with beets - lilac on the outside, yellow on the inside. The Black Nebula and Pusha Asita are black on the outside and deep purple on the inside.
Planting and growing carrots on sandy soils
Cutting beds for carrots on light, well-heated soils, it is advisable to carry out in the spring.
If you did not pre-germinate carrot seeds and prepare them for sowing, as we recommended to do this in the first part of the article, you will have to sow the seeds "at your own peril and risk" just by the piece, at a distance of 5 cm from each other, 15-20 cm - between the rows and to a depth of 1.5-3 cm, hoping for the absence of wind on the day chosen for planting. With this technology, it will be possible not to carry out the first thinning, otherwise just sow several seeds in one hole, resulting in thickened plantings and the need for this procedure.
After sowing, it is necessary to moisten the soil. Watering is carried out especially carefully if granulated seeds or seeds on a belt were used. Then cover the crops with foil or spunbond.
Further care for growing carrots on sandy soil will not differ from that on any other soils - this is watering, fertilizing, loosening and, if necessary, treating diseases and pests.
As you can see, there is nothing particularly difficult in growing carrots, it is only important to prepare the soil for this culture in time and competently and follow simple agricultural techniques. Big and tasty harvests for you!
Growing carrots outdoors
By anna · Published 03.05.2017 · Updated 27.06.2017
In the public mind, carrots are associated primarily with vitamin A - carotene. When they talk about its content in any other food product, they definitely mention: “Almost like (possible options - more than, less than) in carrots” ...
But everywhere carrots are sown not only because of useful vitamins. A delicious juicy root vegetable is included in the recipes for the first and second courses, homemade preserves and even homemade baked goods. Probably everything has been said about the benefits of carrots in the composition of various fresh juices ...
Choosing a place for a garden in the garden
It's no secret that carrots are an unpretentious root crop, but to get a rich harvest, you still need to create comfortable conditions. When choosing a place for the beds, the gardener must take into account:
- this vegetable crop is developing well on a lighted area
- fertile loamy-sandy soil with 4% humus and neutral acidity 6-7 pH
- previously, potatoes, tomatoes, corn and legumes were grown at the sowing site
- do not use for growing beds where herbs previously grew (dill, parsley, fennel, etc.)
- it is impossible plant a vegetable in the same area 2 years in a row.
Large, well-shaped roots grow on peat soilsthat were formed after the drying up of the swamps. And on clay soil, carrots will take on an ugly shape due to strong resistance during growth.
Before freezing, the area for vegetables must be dig up, remove roots and stones... But do not drive the shovel too deep into the ground and destroy the fertile layer. Digging should be about 0.3 meters deep. With the onset of spring, smooth and deeply loosen the surface.
On peat soils, carrots will be large and regular in shape.
How to grow sweet carrots
Hello dear friends, lovers of garden beds!
Many gardeners grow beets and carrots on their land. One of the indicators of the quality of the harvest of these root crops is the sugar content - the higher, the more valuable these vegetables are. There are a number of garden tricks to grow sweet carrots and beets that are easy to follow.
Techniques for increasing the sugar content of root crops (beets and carrots)
1. The choice of a site for root crops. Carrot and beetroot beds should be located in open, sunny areas without shading.
2. Crop rotation rules. You can return to the previous place of culture not earlier than several years (3-4 years). This is due to the accumulation of larvae of pests and pathogens of crops in the soil, as well as to its depletion. The best predecessors of beets and carrots are considered: legumes (peas, beans, lentils), early potato varieties, onions (winter varieties of garlic, onions), cucumbers. These vegetables are harvested early, freeing up the area for digging and the introduction of organic matter and mineral fertilizers.
3. Soil acidity. The ideal acidity indicator is 0 (neutral soil), when the pH of the medium is 7. Even on slightly acidic soils, the sugar content in root crops drops sharply. You can deacidify the soil by scattering lime over the surface of the site. To do this, in the fall, 0.4-0.5 kg of powder is introduced into the soil for each square meter. meter, and then close up with a rake. Liming is rarely carried out - once every 5-8 years. Also, wood ash is a wonderful tool for neutralizing high acidity. Ash application rates during autumn digging are from 0.6 to 1.6 kk / sq. meter depending on the initial indicators.
4. Fertilizers. Fresh manure of farm animals for beets and carrots should not be applied, since the high nitrogen content in it gives root crops an unnatural iodine flavor. In addition, the fruits grow irregularly shaped and have an incredibly orange color (carrots) and a dirty burgundy shade with whitish veins (beets). Rotten bird droppings, rotted manure (humus) and garden compost are most often applied as fertilizers for root crops, and green manure herbs are also used. Crops feel good in areas previously filled with organic matter, for example, under cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin (even with fresh manure).
5. Top dressing. Crops are responsive to feeding, especially during the growing period of root crops (from July to August). Fertilization with a solution of nitroammophoska (30 ml / bucket of water) gives good results. The composition is watered between the rows at the rate of 2.5-3 l / sq. meter, and then irrigate with clean water at room temperature. In August, add additionally to the soil compositions containing manganese and boron (complex fertilizers containing these compounds in high concentration or a teaspoon of each element, dissolved in a bucket of water).
These trace elements increase the sugar content of both beets and carrots by 50%. The application of a solution of micronutrient fertilizers is also carried out by watering the soil between the rows of plants at the rate of 2 l / sq. meter landings. Wood ash also comes to the aid of gardeners here, since it contains boron, manganese, and many other biologically active compounds. Ash application rates - half a glass per sq. meter. The ashes are scattered on the beds, lightly covered with a hoe, and then the area is abundantly watered.
6. Table salt for beets. The root crop is fed with saline (15 grams or 1 tablespoon of crystals in a bucket of water) three times per season. Top dressing is especially important at the end of summer. Consumption of the composition - 5 l / sq. meter. Such dressings make root crops much sweeter and juicier.
7. Boric acid solution for carrots. At the end of August, carrot tops are sprayed with this composition: dissolve 1 teaspoon of boric acid in 1 liter of hot water, and then pour it into a bucket of clean water. This foliar dressing significantly increases the sugar content in root crops.
8. Tobacco dust against carrot flies. The larvae of this insect are the main enemies of the culture. Protecting themselves from them, carrots release special substances that give root vegetables a bitter taste. To prevent the appearance of bitterness and to protect the plantings from the invasion of the pest, the aisles of the carrots are sprinkled with tobacco dust. The procedure is carried out during the period of the first and subsequent thinning of plantings.
Now you know about how to grow sweet carrots and beets! I wish you a plentiful and high-quality harvest of sweet beets and carrots!